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Temporal range: Ordovician–Recent
"Pheronema carpenteri" on exhibit in Naturmuseum Senckenberg
Specimen of on exhibit in Naturmuseum Senckenberg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Porifera
Class: Hexactinellida
Subclass: Amphidiscophora
Schulze, 1886
Order: Amphidiscosida
Schrammen, 1924[1]

Amphidiscosida is an order of hexactinellid sponges characterized by amphidisc spicules, that is, spicules having a stellate disk at each end.[2] They are in the class Hexactinellida and are the only order classified in the monotypic subclass Amphidiscophora.[3] Species of the order Amphidiscosida have existed since the Ordovician period, and still flourish today.[4]



  1. ^ Schrammen, A. (1924). Die Kieselspongien der oberen Kreide von Nordwestdeutschland. Volume 3. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger.
  2. ^ "Amphidiscophora".
  3. ^ "Search Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education". Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  4. ^ "Hexactinellida: Fossil Record".
  5. ^ Gray, J. E. (1857). Synopsis of the families and genera of axiferous zoophytes or barked corals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 25(1), 278–294.
  6. ^ Ijima, I. (1927). The Hexactinellida of the Siboga Expedition. In Weber, M. (Ed.), Siboga-Expeditie (1–383). Leiden: E. J. Brill.
  7. ^ Gray, J. E. (1870). Notes on anchoring sponges (in a letter to Mr. Moore). The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, [4]6(34), 309–312.

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