Classical music

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String quartet performing for the Mozart Year 2006 in Vienna

Classical music is a term that most commonly refers to the formal musical tradition of the Western world, considered to be distinct from Western folk music or popular music traditions.[1][n 1] In a more general sense, the term may also refer to music evidencing similar formal qualities in non-Western cultures. Originated in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, it is classified into eras: the Medieval (500–1400), Renaissance (1400–1600), Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820), Romantic (1800–1910), Modernist (1890–1975) and Postmodern/Contemporary (1950–present) eras. These periods and their dates are all approximate generalizations and represent gradual stylistic shifts that varied in intensity and prominence throughout the Western world.

The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age.[2] The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.[3][failed verification][4]

One distinguishing feature of Western classical music is its use of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.[5][6] Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches and durations for a piece of music.[5] It includes both sacred (religious) and secular music. In contrast to most popular styles that adopted the song (strophic) form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of highly sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, concerto, fugue, sonata, and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera, cantata, and mass.[7]


Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. Nonetheless, a universal characteristic of classical music written since the late 13th century is[8] the invariable appliance of a standardized system of precise mensural notation (which evolved into modern bar notation after 1600) for all compositions and their accurate performance.[9] Another is the creation and development of complex pieces of solo instrumental works (e.g., the fugue). The first symphonies were produced during the Classical period. Beginning in the mid 18th century, the symphony ensemble and the compositions became prominent features of Classical-period music.[10]


Works of classical repertoire often exhibit complexity in their use of orchestration, counterpoint, harmony, musical development, rhythm, phrasing, texture, and form. Whereas most popular styles are usually written in song form, classical music is noted for its development of highly sophisticated instrumental musical forms,[7] like the concerto, symphony and sonata. Classical music is also noted for its use of sophisticated vocal/instrumental forms, such as opera.[citation needed] In opera, vocal soloists and choirs perform staged dramatic works with an orchestra providing accompaniment.

Longer instrumental works are often divided into self-contained pieces, called movements, often with contrasting characters or moods. For instance, symphonies written during the Classical period are usually divided into four movements:

  1. an opening Allegro in sonata form,
  2. a slow movement,
  3. a minuet or scherzo (in a triple metre, such as 3
    ), and
  4. a final Allegro.

These movements can then be further broken down into a hierarchy of smaller units: first sections, then periods, and finally phrases.

Instrumentation and vocal practices[]

The instruments currently used in most classical music were largely invented before the mid-19th century (often much earlier) and systematized in the 18th and 19th centuries. They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band, together with several other solo instruments (such as the piano, harpsichord, and organ). The symphony orchestra includes members of the string, woodwind, brass, and percussion families of instruments. The concert band consists of members of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families. It generally has a larger variety and number of woodwind and brass instruments than the orchestra but does not have a string section. However, many concert bands use a double bass. The vocal practices changed over the classical period, from the single line monophonic Gregorian chant done by monks in the medieval period to the complex, polyphonic choral works of the Renaissance and subsequent periods, which used multiple independent vocal melodies at the same time.


Music notation from an early 14th-century English Missal, featuring the head of Christ. Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church.[11]

The major time divisions of classical music up to 1900 are the Early music period, which includes Medieval (500–1400) and Renaissance (1400–1600) eras, and the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820), and Romantic (1810–1910) eras. The current period encompasses the 20th century and the 21st-century to date and includes the Modernist musical era and the Contemporary or Postmodern musical era, the dates of which are often disputed.

The dates are generalizations, since the periods and eras overlap and the categories are somewhat arbitrary, to the point that some authorities reverse terminologies and refer to a common practice "era" comprising baroque, classical, and romantic "periods".[12] For example, the use of counterpoint and fugue, which is considered characteristic of the Baroque era (or period), was continued by Haydn, who is classified as typical of the Classical era. Beethoven, who is often described as a founder of the Romantic era, and Brahms, who is classified as Romantic, also used counterpoint and fugue, but the romantic and sometimes yearning qualities of their music define their era.

The prefix neo- is used to describe a 19th-, 20th-, or 21st-century composition written in the style of an earlier era, such as Classical or Romantic. Stravinsky's Pulcinella, for example, is a neoclassical composition because it is stylistically similar to works of the Baroque era.[clarification needed]


The Western classical tradition formally begins with music created by and for the Christian Church.[13] It is probable that the early medieval Church wished to disassociate itself from the predominant music of ancient Greece and Rome, as it was a reminder of the pagan religion it had persecuted and been persecuted by.[13] As such, it remains unclear as to what extent the music of the Christian Church, and thus Western classical music as a whole, was influenced by preceding ancient music.[14] The general attitude towards music was adopted from the Ancient Greek and Roman music theorists and commentators;[15][n 2] like in Greco-Roman society, music was seen as a central to education, and included in the quadrivium which, in combination with the trivium, made up the standard liberal arts education of the Middle Ages.[17] This high regard for music was first promoted by the scholars Cassiodorus, Isidore of Seville,[18] and particularly Boethius,[19] whose transmission and expansion on the perspectives of music from Pythagoras, Aristotle and Plato were crucial in the development of medieval musical thought.[20] However, scholars, medieval music theorists and composers regularly misinterpreted or misunderstood the writings of their Greek and Roman predecessors.[21] This was due to the complete absence of surviving Greco-Roman musical works available to medieval musicians,[21][n 3] to the extent that Isidore of Seville (c. 559 – 636) stated "unless sounds are remembered by man, they perish, for they cannot be written down", unaware of the systematic notational practices of Ancient Greece centuries before.[22] Musicologist Gustave Reese notes, however, that many Greco-Roman texts can still be credited as influential to Western classical music, since medieval musicians regularly read their works—regardless of if they were doing so correctly.[21]

However, there are some indisputable musical continuations from the ancient world.[23] Basic aspects such as monophony, improvisation and the dominance of text in musical settings are prominent in both early medieval in music of virtually all ancient civilizations.[24] Exclusively Greek influences include the church modes (which were descendants of developments by Aristoxenus and Pythagoras),[25] basic acoustical theory from pythagorean tuning,[14] as well as the central function of tetrachords.[26] Ancient Greek instruments such as the aulos (a reed instrument) and the lyre (a stringed instrument similar to a small harp) eventually led to several modern-day instruments of a symphonic orchestra.[27] However, Donald Jay Grout notes that attempting to create a direct evolutionary connection from the ancient music to early medieval is baseless, as it was almost solely influenced by Greco-Roman music theory, not performance or practice.[28]

Early music[]


Musician playing the vielle (fourteenth-century Medieval manuscript)

Medieval music includes Western European music from after the fall of the Western Roman Empire by 476 to about 1400. Monophonic chant, also called plainsong or Gregorian chant, was the dominant form until about 1100.[29] Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church.[11][30][31] Polyphonic (multi-voiced) music developed from monophonic chant throughout the late Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, including the more complex voicings of motets. During the earlier medieval period, the vocal music from the liturgical genre, predominantly Gregorian chant, was monophonic, using a single, unaccompanied vocal melody line.[32] Polyphonic vocal genres, which used multiple independent vocal melodies, began to develop during the high medieval era, becoming prevalent by the later 13th and early 14th century. Notable Medieval composers include Hildegard of Bingen, Léonin, Pérotin, Philippe de Vitry, Guillaume de Machaut, Francesco Landini, and Johannes Ciconia.

Many medieval musical instruments still exist, but in different forms. Medieval instruments included the flute, the recorder and plucked string instruments like the lute. As well, early versions of the organ and fiddle (or vielle) existed. Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone note, or occasionally in parts. From at least as early as the 13th century through the 15th century there was a division of instruments into haut (loud, shrill, outdoor instruments) and bas (quieter, more intimate instruments).[33] A number of instrument have roots in Eastern predecessors that were adopted from the medieval Islamic world.[34] For example, the Arabic rebab is the ancestor of all European bowed string instruments, including the lira, rebec and violin.[35][36]


The Renaissance era was from 1400 to 1600. It was characterized by greater use of instrumentation, multiple interweaving melodic lines, and the use of the first bass instruments. Social dancing became more widespread, so musical forms appropriate to accompanying dance began to standardize. It is in this time that the notation of music on a staff and other elements of musical notation began to take shape.[37] This invention made possible the separation of the composition of a piece of music from its transmission; without written music, transmission was oral, and subject to change every time it was transmitted. With a musical score, a work of music could be performed without the composer's presence.[38] The invention of the movable-type printing press in the 15th century had far-reaching consequences on the preservation and transmission of music.[39]

An illuminated opening from the Chigi codex featuring the Kyrie of Ockeghem's Missa Ecce ancilla Domini

Many instruments originated during the Renaissance; others were variations of, or improvements upon, instruments that had existed previously. Some have survived to the present day; others have disappeared, only to be re-created in order to perform music on period instruments. As in the modern day, instruments may be classified as brass, strings, percussion, and woodwind. Brass instruments in the Renaissance were traditionally played by professionals who were members of Guilds and they included the slide trumpet, the wooden cornet, the valveless trumpet and the sackbut. Stringed instruments included the viol, the rebec, the harp-like lyre, the hurdy-gurdy, the lute, the guitar, the cittern, the bandora, and the orpharion. Keyboard instruments with strings included the harpsichord and the clavichord. Percussion instruments include the triangle, the Jew's harp, the tambourine, the bells, the rumble-pot, and various kinds of drums. Woodwind instruments included the double-reed shawm (an early member of the oboe family), the reed pipe, the bagpipe, the transverse flute, the recorder, the dulcian, and the crumhorn. Simple pipe organs existed, but were largely confined to churches, although there were portable varieties.[40] Printing enabled the standardization of descriptions and specifications of instruments, as well as instruction in their use.[41]

Vocal music in the Renaissance is noted for the flourishing of an increasingly elaborate polyphonic style. The principal liturgical forms which endured throughout the entire Renaissance period were masses and motets, with some other developments towards the end, especially as composers of sacred music began to adopt secular forms (such as the madrigal) for their own designs. Towards the end of the period, the early dramatic precursors of opera such as monody, the madrigal comedy, and the intermedio are seen. Around 1597, Italian composer Jacopo Peri wrote Dafne, the first work to be called an opera today. He also composed Euridice, the first opera to have survived to the present day.

Notable Renaissance composers include Josquin des Prez, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, John Dunstaple, Johannes Ockeghem, Orlande de Lassus, Guillaume Du Fay, Gilles Binchois, Thomas Tallis, William Byrd, Giovanni Gabrieli, Carlo Gesualdo, John Dowland, Jacob Obrecht, Adrian Willaert, Jacques Arcadelt, and Cipriano de Rore.

Common-practice period[]

The common practice period is typically defined as the era between the formation and the dissolution of common-practice tonality.[citation needed] The term usually spans roughly two-and-a-half centuries, encompassing the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods.


Baroque instruments including hurdy-gurdy, harpsichord, bass viol, lute, violin, and baroque guitar

Baroque music is characterized by the use of complex tonal counterpoint and the use of a basso continuo, a continuous bass line. Music became more complex in comparison with the simple songs of all previous periods.[42] The beginnings of the sonata form took shape in the canzona, as did a more formalized notion of theme and variations. The tonalities of major and minor as means for managing dissonance and chromaticism in music took full shape.[43]

During the Baroque era, keyboard music played on the harpsichord and pipe organ became increasingly popular, and the violin family of stringed instruments took the form generally seen today. Opera as a staged musical drama began to differentiate itself from earlier musical and dramatic forms, and vocal forms like the cantata and oratorio became more common.[44] Vocalists for the first time began adding extra notes to the music.[42]

The theories surrounding equal temperament began to be put in wider practice, especially as it enabled a wider range of chromatic possibilities in hard-to-tune keyboard instruments. Although J.S. Bach did not use equal temperament, as a modern piano is generally tuned, changes in the temperaments from the meantone system, common at the time, to various temperaments that made modulation between all keys musically acceptable, made possible his Well-Tempered Clavier.[45]

Baroque instruments included some instruments from the earlier periods (e.g., the hurdy-gurdy and recorder) and a number of new instruments (e.g., the oboe, bassoon, cello, contrabass and fortepiano). Some instruments from previous eras fell into disuse, such as the shawm, cittern, rackett, and the wooden cornet. The key Baroque instruments for strings included the violin, viol, viola, viola d'amore, cello, contrabass, lute, theorbo (which often played the basso continuo parts), mandolin, Baroque guitar, harp and hurdy-gurdy. Woodwinds included the Baroque flute, Baroque oboe, recorder and the bassoon. Brass instruments included the cornett, natural horn, natural trumpet, serpent and the trombone. Keyboard instruments included the clavichord, the tangent piano, the harpsichord, the pipe organ, and, later in the period, the fortepiano (an early version of the piano). Percussion instruments included the timpani, snare drum, tambourine and the castanets.

One major difference between Baroque music and the classical era that followed it is that the types of instruments used in Baroque ensembles were much less standardized. A Baroque ensemble could include one of several different types of keyboard instruments (e.g., pipe organ or harpsichord),[46] additional stringed chordal instruments (e.g., a lute), bowed strings, woodwinds, and brass instruments, and an unspecified number of bass instruments performing the basso continuo,(e.g., a cello, contrabass, viola, bassoon, serpent, etc.).

Vocal developments in the Baroque era included the development of opera types such as opera seria and opéra comique, and related forms such as oratorios and cantatas.[47][48]

Important composers of this era include Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Henry Purcell, Claudio Monteverdi, Barbara Strozzi, Domenico Scarlatti, Georg Philipp Telemann, Arcangelo Corelli, Alessandro Scarlatti, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Jean-Baptiste Lully, and Heinrich Schütz.


Joseph Haydn (1732–1809) portrayed by Thomas Hardy (1791)

Though the term "classical music" includes all Western art music from the Medieval era to the 2000s, the Classical Era was the period of Western art music from the 1750s to the early 1820s—the era of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, and Ludwig van Beethoven.

The Classical era established many of the norms of composition, presentation, and style, and was also when the piano became the predominant keyboard instrument. The basic forces required for an orchestra became somewhat standardized (although they would grow as the potential of a wider array of instruments was developed in the following centuries). Chamber music grew to include ensembles with as many as 8 to 10 performers for serenades. Opera continued to develop, with regional styles in Italy, France, and German-speaking lands. The opera buffa, a form of comic opera, rose in popularity. The symphony came into its own as a musical form, and the concerto was developed as a vehicle for displays of virtuoso playing skill. Orchestras no longer required a harpsichord (which had been part of the traditional continuo in the Baroque style), and were often led by the lead violinist (now called the concertmaster).[49]

Classical era musicians continued to use many of instruments from the Baroque era, such as the cello, contrabass, recorder, trombone, timpani, fortepiano (the precursor to the modern piano) and organ. While some Baroque instruments fell into disuse (e.g., the theorbo and rackett), many Baroque instruments were changed into the versions that are still in use today, such as the Baroque violin (which became the violin), the Baroque oboe (which became the oboe) and the Baroque trumpet, which transitioned to the regular valved trumpet. During the Classical era, the stringed instruments used in orchestra and chamber music such as string quartets were standardized as the four instruments which form the string section of the orchestra: the violin, viola, cello, and double bass. Baroque-era stringed instruments such as fretted, bowed viols were phased out. Woodwinds included the basset clarinet, basset horn, clarinette d'amour, the Classical clarinet, the chalumeau, the flute, oboe and bassoon. Keyboard instruments included the clavichord and the fortepiano. While the harpsichord was still used in basso continuo accompaniment in the 1750s and 1760s, it fell out of use at the end of the century. Brass instruments included the buccin, the ophicleide (a replacement for the bass serpent, which was the precursor of the tuba) and the natural horn.

Wind instruments became more refined in the Classical era. While double-reed instruments like the oboe and bassoon became somewhat standardized in the Baroque, the clarinet family of single reeds was not widely used until Mozart expanded its role in orchestral, chamber, and concerto settings.[50]

Major composers of this period include Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Joseph Haydn, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Johann Christian Bach, Luigi Boccherini, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Muzio Clementi, Antonio Salieri, and Johann Nepomuk Hummel.


The music of the Romantic era, from roughly the first decade of the 19th century to the early 20th century, was characterized by increased attention to an extended melodic line, as well as expressive and emotional elements, paralleling romanticism in other art forms. Musical forms began to break from the Classical era forms (even as those were being codified), with free-form pieces like nocturnes, fantasias, and preludes being written where accepted ideas about the exposition and development of themes were ignored or minimized.[51] The music became more chromatic, dissonant, and tonally colorful, with tensions (with respect to accepted norms of the older forms) about key signatures increasing.[52] The art song (or Lied) came to maturity in this era, as did the epic scales of grand opera, ultimately transcended by Richard Wagner's Ring cycle.[53]

In the 19th century, musical institutions emerged from the control of wealthy patrons, as composers and musicians could construct lives independent of the nobility. Increasing interest in music by the growing middle classes throughout western Europe spurred the creation of organizations for the teaching, performance, and preservation of music. The piano, which achieved its modern construction in this era (in part due to industrial advances in metallurgy) became widely popular with the middle class, whose demands for the instrument spurred many piano builders. Many symphony orchestras date their founding to this era.[52] Some musicians and composers were the stars of the day; some, like Franz Liszt and Niccolò Paganini, fulfilled both roles.[54]

European cultural ideas and institutions began to follow colonial expansion into other parts of the world. There was also a rise, especially toward the end of the era, of nationalism in music (echoing, in some cases, political sentiments of the time), as composers such as Edvard Grieg, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, and Antonín Dvořák echoed traditional music of their homelands in their compositions.[55]

Dublin Philharmonic Orchestra

In the Romantic era, the modern piano, with a more powerful, sustained tone and a wider range took over from the more delicate-sounding fortepiano. In the orchestra, the existing Classical instruments and sections were retained (string section, woodwinds, brass, and percussion), but these sections were typically expanded to make a fuller, bigger sound. For example, while a Baroque orchestra may have had two double bass players, a Romantic orchestra could have as many as ten. "As music grew more expressive, the standard orchestral palette just wasn't rich enough for many Romantic composers."[56]

The families of instruments used, especially in orchestras, grew larger; a process that climaxed in the early 20th century with very large orchestras used by late romantic and modernist composers. A wider array of percussion instruments began to appear. Brass instruments took on larger roles, as the introduction of rotary valves made it possible for them to play a wider range of notes. The size of the orchestra (typically around 40 in the Classical era) grew to be over 100.[52] Gustav Mahler's 1906 Symphony No. 8, for example, has been performed with over 150 instrumentalists and choirs of over 400.[57] New woodwind instruments were added, such as the contrabassoon, bass clarinet and piccolo and new percussion instruments were added, including xylophones, snare drums, celestas (a bell-like keyboard instrument), bells, and triangles,[56] large orchestral harps, and even wind machines for sound effects. Saxophones appear in some scores from the late 19th century onwards, usually featured as a solo instrument rather than as in integral part of the orchestra.

The Wagner tuba, a modified member of the horn family, appears in Richard Wagner's cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. It also has a prominent role in Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 7 in E Major and is also used in several late romantic and modernist works by Richard Strauss, Béla Bartók, and others[58] Cornets appear regularly in 19th century scores, alongside trumpets which were regarded as less agile, at least until the end of the century.

Prominent composers of this era include Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Frédéric Chopin, Hector Berlioz, Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Felix Mendelssohn, Franz Liszt, Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner, Johannes Brahms, Edvard Grieg, and Johann Strauss II. Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss are commonly regarded as transitional composers whose music combines both late romantic and early modernist elements.

20th and 21st centuries[]


Igor Stravinsky, by Pablo Picasso, collaborators on Pulcinella (1920)

Encompassing a wide variety of post-Romantic styles, modernist classical music includes late romantic, impressionist, expressionist, and neoclassical styles of composition. Modernism marked an era when many composers rejected certain values of the common practice period, such as traditional tonality, melody, instrumentation, and structure. Some music historians regard musical modernism as an era extending from about 1890 to 1930.[59] Others consider that modernism ended with one or the other of the two world wars.[60][incomplete short citation] Still other authorities claim that modernism is not associated with any historical era, but rather is "an attitude of the composer; a living construct that can evolve with the times".[61][incomplete short citation] Despite its decline in the last third of the 20th century, there remained at the end of the century an active core of composers who continued to advance the ideas and forms of modernism, such as Pierre Boulez, Pauline Oliveros, Toru Takemitsu, George Benjamin, Jacob Druckman, Brian Ferneyhough, George Perle, Wolfgang Rihm, Richard Wernick, Richard Wilson, and Ralph Shapey.[62]

Two musical movements that were dominant during this time were the impressionist beginning around 1890 and the expressionist that started around 1908. It was a period of diverse reactions in challenging and reinterpreting older categories of music, innovations that lead to new ways of organizing and approaching harmonic, melodic, sonic, and rhythmic aspects of music, and changes in aesthetic worldviews in close relation to the larger identifiable period of modernism in the arts of the time. The operative word most associated with it is "innovation".[63] Its leading feature is a "linguistic plurality", which is to say that no single music genre ever assumed a dominant position.[64]

The orchestra continued to grow in size during the early years modernist era, peaking in the first two decades of the 20th century. Saxophones that appeared only rarely during the 19th century became more commonly used as supplementary instruments, but never became core members of the orchestra. While appearing only as featured solo instruments in some works, for example Maurice Ravel's orchestration of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition and Sergei Rachmaninoff's Symphonic Dances, the saxophone is included in other works such as Sergei Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet Suites 1 and 2 and many other works as a member of the orchestral ensemble. In some compositions such as Ravel's Boléro, two or more saxophones of different sizes are used to create an entire section like the other sections of the orchestra. The euphonium is featured in a few late Romantic and 20th century works, usually playing parts marked "tenor tuba", including Gustav Holst's The Planets, and Richard Strauss's Ein Heldenleben.

Prominent composers of the early 20th century include Igor Stravinsky, Claude Debussy, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Sergei Prokofiev, Arnold Schoenberg, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Anton Webern, Alban Berg, Cécile Chaminade, Paul Hindemith, Aram Khachaturian, George Gershwin, Amy Beach, Béla Bartók, and Dmitri Shostakovich, along with the aforementioned Mahler and Strauss as transitional figures who carried over from the 19th century.


Postmodern music is a period of music that began as early as 1930 according to some authorities.[65][66] It shares characteristics with postmodernist art – that is, art that comes after and reacts against modernism.

Some other authorities have more or less equated postmodern music with the "contemporary music" composed well after 1930, from the late 20th century through to the early 21st century.[67][68] Some of the diverse movements of the postmodern/contemporary era include the neoromantic, neomedieval, minimalist, and post minimalist.

Contemporary classical music at the beginning of the 21st century was often considered to include all post-1945 musical forms.[69] A generation later, this term now properly refers to the music of today written by composers who are still alive; music that came into prominence in the mid-1970s. It includes different variations of modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music.[70]

Timeline of composers[]

Alonso LoboGiovanni GabrieliTomás Luis de VictoriaWilliam ByrdOrlande de LassusFrancisco GuerreroGiovanni Pierluigi da PalestrinaCipriano de RoreThomas TallisCristóbal de MoralesNicolas GombertAdrian WillaertPierre de la RueJosquin Des PrezJohannes OckeghemGuillaume Du FayJohn DunstapleJohannes CiconiaFrancesco LandiniGuillaume de MachautPhilippe de VitryAdam de la HalleWalther von der VogelweidePérotinLéoninBernart de VentadornHildegard of Bingen
Esa-Pekka SalonenLudovico EinaudiKaija SaariahoJohn Adams (composer)Philip GlassSteve ReichArvo PärtKrzysztof PendereckiToru TakemitsuKarlheinz StockhausenEinojuhani RautavaaraPierre BoulezLuigi NonoGyörgy LigetiIannis XenakisMilton BabbittWitold LutosławskiBenjamin BrittenJohn CageSamuel BarberOlivier MessiaenElliott CarterDmitri ShostakovichAaron CoplandFrancis PoulencPaul HindemithSergei ProkofievAlban BergAnton WebernEdgard VarèsePercy GraingerIgor StravinskyBéla BartókMaurice RavelCharles IvesGustav HolstArnold SchoenbergSergei RachmaninoffRalph Vaughan WilliamsAlexander ScriabinJean SibeliusRichard StraussClaude DebussyFrederick DeliusCarl NielsenGustav MahlerGiacomo PucciniEdward ElgarLeoš JanáčekGabriel FauréNikolai Rimsky-KorsakovEdvard GriegAntonin DvorakPyotr Ilyich TchaikovskyModest MussorgskyGeorges BizetCamille Saint-SaënsJohannes BrahmsAnton BrucknerGiuseppe VerdiRichard WagnerFranz LisztRobert SchumannFrederic ChopinFelix MendelssohnHector BerliozGaetano DonizettiFranz SchubertGioacchino RossiniCarl Maria von WeberNiccolo PaganiniLudwig van BeethovenWolfgang Amadeus MozartAntonio SalieriJoseph HaydnJohann StamitzChristoph Willibald GluckCarl Philipp Emanuel BachGiovanni Battista PergolesiDomenico ScarlattiJohann Sebastian BachGeorge Frideric HandelJean-Philippe RameauGeorg Philipp TelemannAntonio VivaldiFrançois CouperinAlessandro ScarlattiHenry PurcellArcangelo CorelliJohann PachelbelDieterich BuxtehudeJean-Baptiste LullyGiacomo CarissimiHeinrich SchützGirolamo FrescobaldiClaudio Monteverdi


Youth orchestra in performance

Performers who have studied classical music extensively are said to be "classically trained". This training may come from private lessons from instrument or voice teachers or from completion of a formal program offered by a Conservatory, college or university, such as a Bachelor of Music or Master of Music degree (which includes individual lessons from professors). In classical music, "...extensive formal music education and training, often to postgraduate [Master's degree] level" is required.[71]

Performance of classical music repertoire requires a proficiency in sight-reading and ensemble playing, harmonic principles, strong ear training (to correct and adjust pitches by ear), knowledge of performance practice (e.g., Baroque ornamentation), and a familiarity with the style/musical idiom expected for a given composer or musical work (e.g., a Brahms symphony or a Mozart concerto).[citation needed]

The key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music, folk music, and some other classical music traditions such as Indian classical music, is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score.[72] This score typically determines details of rhythm, pitch, and, where two or more musicians (whether singers or instrumentalists) are involved, how the various parts are coordinated. The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic.[73] The use of written notation also preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago.

Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and both vocal and instrumental performers would improvise musical ornaments.[74] Johann Sebastian Bach was particularly noted for his complex improvisations.[75] During the Classical era, the composer-performer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was noted for his ability to improvise melodies in different styles.[76] During the Classical era, some virtuoso soloists would improvise the cadenza sections of a concerto. During the Romantic era, Ludwig van Beethoven would improvise at the piano.[77]

Women in classical music[]

Martha Argerich at the Kirchner Cultural Centre, Buenos Aires

Almost all of the composers who are described in music textbooks on classical music and whose works are widely performed as part of the standard concert repertoire are male composers, even though there has been a large number of women composers throughout the classical music period. Musicologist Marcia Citron has asked "[w]hy is music composed by women so marginal to the standard 'classical' repertoire?"[78] Citron "examines the practices and attitudes that have led to the exclusion of women composers from the received 'canon' of performed musical works". She argues that in the 1800s, women composers typically wrote art songs for performance in small recitals rather than symphonies intended for performance with an orchestra in a large hall, with the latter works being seen as the most important genre for composers; since women composers did not write many symphonies, they were deemed not to be notable as composers.[78] In the "...Concise Oxford History of Music, Clara S[c]humann is one of the only [sic] female composers mentioned."[79] Abbey Philips states that "[d]uring the 20th century the women who were composing/playing gained far less attention than their male counterparts."[79]

Historically, major professional orchestras have been mostly or entirely composed of musicians who are men. Some of the earliest cases of women being hired in professional orchestras was in the position of harpist. The Vienna Philharmonic, for example, did not accept women to permanent membership until 1997, far later than the other orchestras ranked among the world's top five by Gramophone in 2008.[80] The last major orchestra to appoint a woman to a permanent position was the Berlin Philharmonic.[81] As late as February 1996, the Vienna Philharmonic's principal flute, Dieter Flury, told Westdeutscher Rundfunk that accepting women would be "gambling with the emotional unity (emotionelle Geschlossenheit) that this organism currently has".[82] In April 1996, the orchestra's press secretary wrote that "compensating for the expected leaves of absence" of maternity leave would be a problem.[83]

In 1997, the Vienna Philharmonic was "facing protests during a [US] tour" by the National Organization for Women and the International Alliance for Women in Music. Finally, "after being held up to increasing ridicule even in socially conservative Austria, members of the orchestra gathered [on 28 February 1997] in an extraordinary meeting on the eve of their departure and agreed to admit a woman, Anna Lelkes, as harpist."[84] As of 2013, the orchestra has six female members; one of them, violinist Albena Danailova became one of the orchestra's concertmasters in 2008, the first woman to hold that position.[85] In 2012, women still made up just 6% of the orchestra's membership. VPO president Clemens Hellsberg said the VPO now uses completely screened blind auditions.[86]

In 2013, an article in Mother Jones stated that while "[m]any prestigious orchestras have significant female membership—women outnumber men in the New York Philharmonic's violin section—and several renowned ensembles, including the National Symphony Orchestra, the Detroit Symphony, and the Minnesota Symphony, are led by women violinists," the double bass, brass, and percussion sections of major orchestras "...are still predominantly male".[87] A 2014 BBC article stated that the "...introduction of 'blind' auditions, where a prospective instrumentalist performs behind a screen so that the judging panel can exercise no gender or racial prejudice, has seen the gender balance of traditionally male-dominated symphony orchestras gradually shift."[88]

Relationship to other music traditions[]

Popular music[]

Classical music has often incorporated elements or material from popular music of the composer's time. Examples include occasional music such as Brahms' use of student drinking songs in his Academic Festival Overture, genres exemplified by Kurt Weill's The Threepenny Opera, and the influence of jazz on early and mid-20th-century composers including Maurice Ravel, exemplified by the movement entitled "Blues" in his sonata for violin and piano.[89] Some postmodern, minimalist and postminimalist classical composers acknowledge a debt to popular music.[90][failed verification]

Numerous examples show influence in the opposite direction, including popular songs based on classical music, the use to which Pachelbel's Canon has been put since the 1970s, and the musical crossover phenomenon, where classical musicians have achieved success in the popular music arena.[91] In heavy metal, a number of lead guitarists (playing electric guitar), including Ritchie Blackmore and Randy Rhoads,[92] modeled their playing styles on Baroque or Classical-era instrumental music.[93]

Folk music[]

Composers of classical music have often made use of folk music (music created by musicians who are commonly not classically trained, often from a purely oral tradition). Some composers, like Dvořák and Smetana,[94] have used folk themes to impart a nationalist flavor to their work, while others like Bartók have used specific themes lifted whole from their folk-music origins.[95]


Certain staples of classical music are often used commercially (either in advertising or in movie soundtracks). In television commercials, several passages have become clichéd, particularly the opening of Richard Strauss' Also sprach Zarathustra (made famous in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey) and the opening section "O Fortuna" of Carl Orff's Carmina Burana; other examples include the "Dies irae" from the Verdi Requiem, Edvard Grieg's "In the Hall of the Mountain King" from Peer Gynt, the opening bars of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, Wagner's "Ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre, Rimsky-Korsakov's "Flight of the Bumblebee", and excerpts of Aaron Copland's Rodeo.[citation needed] Several works from the Golden Age of Animation matched the action to classical music. Notable examples are Walt Disney's Fantasia, Tom and Jerry's Johann Mouse, and Warner Bros.' Rabbit of Seville and What's Opera, Doc?

Similarly, movies and television often revert to standard, clichéd excerpts of classical music to convey refinement or opulence: some of the most-often heard pieces in this category include Bach´s Cello Suite No. 1, Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik, Vivaldi's Four Seasons, Mussorgsky's Night on Bald Mountain (as orchestrated by Rimsky-Korsakov), and Rossini's "William Tell Overture". Shawn Vancour argues that the commercialization of classical music in the early 20th century may have harmed the music industry through inadequate representation.[96]


During the 1990s, several research papers and popular books wrote on what came to be called the "Mozart effect": an observed temporary, small elevation of scores on certain tests as a result of listening to Mozart's works. The approach has been popularized in a book by Don Campbell, and is based on an experiment published in Nature suggesting that listening to Mozart temporarily boosted students' IQ by 8 to 9 points.[97] This popularized version of the theory was expressed succinctly by the New York Times music columnist Alex Ross: "researchers... have determined that listening to Mozart actually makes you smarter."[98] Promoters marketed CDs claimed to induce the effect. Florida passed a law requiring toddlers in state-run schools to listen to classical music every day, and in 1998 the governor of Georgia budgeted $105,000 per year to provide every child born in Georgia with a tape or CD of classical music. One of the co-authors of the original studies of the Mozart effect commented "I don't think it can hurt. I'm all for exposing children to wonderful cultural experiences. But I do think the money could be better spent on music education programs."[99]

See also[]


Other art music traditions:

Notes and references[]


  1. ^ Historically, the term 'classical music' may refer specifically to the European musical period from around 1750 to 1820.
  2. ^ From all available evidence, it appears that no significant musical developments can be credited to Ancient Rome, who largely adopted the practices of their Ancient Greek ancestors.[16]
  3. ^ Musicologist Donald Jay Grout notes that even by the 20th century there are only various fragments and a few more sizable examples of such music that survives.[13]


  1. ^ "classical". Webster's Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved July 31, 2021.
  2. ^ Rushton, Julian, Classical Music, (London, 1994), 10
  3. ^ Kennedy & Kennedy 2013, "Classical".
  4. ^ "classical, a." The Oxford English Dictionary. 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007. 1829 V. Novello Diary 26 July in V. Novello & M. Novello Mozart Pilgrimage (1955) 181 This is the place I should come to every Sunday when I wished to hear classical music correctly and judiciously performed.
  5. ^ Jump up to: a b Bent, Ian D. (2019). "Musical notation". Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  6. ^ Harvard Dictionary of Music (2nd edition, 1972): "Neume", Staff
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b Johnson 2002, p. 63
  8. ^ Kennedy 2006, p. 178.
  9. ^ Willi Apel (1961). "The notation of polyphonic music, 900–1600". Cambridge, Massachusetts: Mediaeval Academy of America. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  10. ^ Laurence Elliot Libin. "Symphony, music". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  11. ^ Jump up to: a b Hall, Neitz, and Battani 2003, p. 99.
  12. ^ Vladimir J. Konečni (2009). "Mode and tempo in Western classical music of the common-practice era". Empirical Musicology Review. 4 (1). hdl:1811/36604.
  13. ^ Jump up to: a b c Grout 1973, p. 2.
  14. ^ Jump up to: a b Grout 1973, p. 11.
  15. ^ Yudkin 1989, p. 20.
  16. ^ Grout 1973, pp. 10–11.
  17. ^ Yudkin 1989, pp. 27–28.
  18. ^ Yudkin 1989, pp. 28–29.
  19. ^ Yudkin 1989, p. 25.
  20. ^ Fassler 2014, p. 28.
  21. ^ Jump up to: a b c Reese 1940, p. 4.
  22. ^ Fassler 2014, p. 20.
  23. ^ Grout 1973, p. 4.
  24. ^ Grout 1973, pp. 4–5, 11.
  25. ^ Grout 1973, p. 28.
  26. ^ Grout 1973, pp. 11, 22.
  27. ^ Grout 1973, p. 24.
  28. ^ Grout 1973, p. 5.
  29. ^ Grout 1973, p. 75.
  30. ^ Blanchard, Bonnie; Blanchard Acree, Cynthia (2009). Making Music and Having a Blast!: A Guide for All Music Students. Indiana University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-253-00335-5.
  31. ^ Guides, Rough (May 3, 2010). The Rough Guide to Classical Music. Rough Guides UK. ISBN 978-1-84836-677-0. Retrieved June 21, 2018 – via Google Books.
  32. ^ Hoppin 1978, p. 57.
  33. ^ Bowles 1954, 119 et passim.
  34. ^ Sachs, Curt (1940), The History of Musical Instruments, Dover Publications, p. 260, ISBN 978-0-486-45265-4
  35. ^ "rabab (musical instrument) – Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  36. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2009), lira, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, retrieved February 20, 2009
  37. ^ Grout 1973, p. 61.
  38. ^ Grout 1973, pp. 75–76.
  39. ^ Grout 1973, pp. 175–176.
  40. ^ Grout 1973, pp. 72–74.
  41. ^ Grout 1973, p. 222–225.
  42. ^ Jump up to: a b Kirgiss, Crystal (2004). Classical Music. Black Rabbit Books. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-58340-674-8.
  43. ^ Grout 1973, pp. 300–32.
  44. ^ Grout 1973, pp. 341–355.
  45. ^ Grout 1973, p. 378.
  46. ^ "Baroque orchestral music". BBC. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  47. ^ "Cantata". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  48. ^ "Oratorio". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  49. ^ Grout 1973, p. 463.
  50. ^ Ward Kingdon, Martha (April 1, 1947). "Mozart and the clarinet". Music & Letters. XXVIII (2): 126–153. doi:10.1093/ml/XXVIII.2.126. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  51. ^ Swafford, p. 200
  52. ^ Jump up to: a b c Swafford, p. 201
  53. ^ Grout 1973, pp. 595–612.
  54. ^ Grout 1973, p. 543.
  55. ^ Grout 1973, pp. 634, 641–642.
  56. ^ Jump up to: a b "Romantic music: a beginner's guide – Music Periods". Classic FM. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  57. ^ Pitcher, John (January 2013). "Nashville Symphony". American Record Guide. 76 (1): 8–10.
  58. ^ "The Wagner Tuba". The Wagner Tuba. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  59. ^ Károlyi 1994, 135; Meyer 1994, 331–332
  60. ^ Albright 2004, 13.
  61. ^ McHard 2008, 14.
  62. ^ Botstein 2001, §9.
  63. ^ Metzer 2009, 3.
  64. ^ Morgan 1984, 443.
  65. ^ Károlyi 1994, 135
  66. ^ Meyer 1994, 331–32
  67. ^ Sullivan 1995, p. 217.
  68. ^ Beard and Gloag 2005, 142.
  69. ^ "Contemporary" in Du Noyer 2003, p. 272
  70. ^ Botstein 2001, §9: The Late 20th Century.
  71. ^ "Job Guide – Classical Musician". Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  72. ^ LaFleur, Ezra (May 28, 2020). "What is Classical Music? A Family Resemblance".
  73. ^ Knud Jeppesen: "Bach's music grows out of an ideally harmonic background, against which the voices develop with bold independence that is often breath-taking." Quoted from Katz 1946
  74. ^ Gabriel Solis, Bruno Nettl. Musical Improvisation: Art, Education, and Society. University of Illinois Press, 2009. p. 150
  75. ^ "On Baroque Improvisation". Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  76. ^ David Grayson. Mozart: Piano Concertos Nos. 20 and 21. Cambridge University Press, 1998. p. 95
  77. ^ Tilman Skowronek. Beethoven the Pianist. Cambridge University Press, 2010. p. 160
  78. ^ Jump up to: a b Citron, Marcia J. (1993). Gender and the Musical Canon. CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-39292-1..[page needed]
  79. ^ Jump up to: a b Abbey Philips (September 1, 2011). "The history of women and gender roles in music". Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  80. ^ "The world's greatest orchestras". October 24, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
  81. ^ James R. Oestreich, "Berlin in Lights: The Woman Question", Arts Beat, The New York Times, November 16, 2007
  82. ^ WDR 5, "Musikalische Misogynie", February 13, 1996, transcribed by Regina Himmelbauer Archived December 22, 2019, at the Wayback Machine; translation by William Osborne
  83. ^ "The Vienna Philharmonic's Letter of Response to the Gen-Mus List". February 25, 1996. Archived from the original on October 22, 2018. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
  84. ^ Jane Perlez, "Vienna Philharmonic Lets Women Join in Harmony", The New York Times, February 28, 1997
  85. ^ "Vienna opera appoints first ever female concertmaster". France 24. May 8, 2008. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009.
  86. ^ James R. Oestreich, "Even Legends Adjust To Time and Trend, Even the Vienna Philharmonic", The New York Times, February 28, 1998
  87. ^ Hannah Levintova. "Here's Why You Seldom See Women Leading a Symphony". Mother Jones. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  88. ^ Burton, Clemency (October 21, 2014). "Culture – Why aren't there more women conductors?". BBC. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  89. ^ Kelly, Barbara L. (2001). "Ravel, Maurice, §3: 1918–37". In Root, Deane L. (ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Oxford University Press.
  90. ^ See, for example, Siôn, Pwyll Ap (2001). "Nyman, Michael". In Root, Deane L. (ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Oxford University Press.
  91. ^ Notable examples are the Hooked on Classics series of recordings made by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in the early 1980s and the classical crossover violinists Vanessa Mae and Catya Maré.
  92. ^ Carew, Francis Wayne (January 1, 2018). The Guitar Voice of Randy Rhoads (Master of Arts). Wayne State University. pp. 1–2. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
  93. ^ Walser, Robert (October 1992). "Eruptions: heavy metal appropriations of classical virtuosity". Popular Music. 11 (3): 263–308. doi:10.1017/s0261143000005158. ISSN 0261-1430.
  94. ^ Yeomans, David (2006). Piano Music of the Czech Romantics: A Performer's Guide. Indiana University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-253-21845-2.
  95. ^ Stevens, Haley; Gillies, Malcolm (1993). The Life and Music of Béla Bartók. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-19-816349-7.
  96. ^ Vancour, Shawn (March 2009). "Popularizing the Classics: Radio's Role in the Music Appreciation Movement 1922–34". Media, Culture and Society. 31 (2): 19. doi:10.1177/0163443708100319. S2CID 144331723.
  97. ^ Steele, Kenneth M.; Bella, Simone Dalla; Peretz, Isabelle; Dunlop, Tracey; Dawe, Lloyd A.; Humphrey, G. Keith; Shannon, Roberta A.; Kirby, Johnny L.; Olmstead, C. G. (1999). "Prelude or requiem for the 'Mozart effect'?" (PDF). Nature. 400 (6747): 827–828. Bibcode:1999Natur.400..827S. doi:10.1038/23611. PMID 10476959. S2CID 4352029.
  98. ^ Ross, Alex. "Classical View; Listening To Prozac... Er, Mozart", The New York Times, August 28, 1994. Retrieved on May 16, 2008.
  99. ^ Goode, Erica. "Mozart for Baby? Some Say, Maybe Not", The New York Times, August 3, 1999. Retrieved on May 16, 2008.


  • Albright, Daniel. 2004. Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-01267-0.
  • Botstein, Leon (2001). "Modernism". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.40625.
  • Beard, David, and Kenneth Gloag. 2005. Musicology: The Key Concepts. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-31692-7.
  • Bowles, Edmund A. (1954). "Haut and Bas: The Grouping of Musical Instruments in the Middle Ages". Musica Disciplina. 8: 115–140. JSTOR 20531877.
  • Du Noyer, Paul (ed.). 2003. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music: From Rock, Pop, Jazz, Blue, and Hip-Hop to Classical, Folk, World, and More. London: Flame Tree. ISBN 978-1-904041-70-2.
  • Grout, Donald Jay (1973). A History of Western Music. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-09416-9. (limited book preview)
  • Johnson, Julian (2002). Who Needs Classical Music?: Cultural Choice and Musical Value. Oxford University Press.
  • Hall, John R., Mary Jo Neitz, and Marshall Battani. 2003. Sociology on Culture. Sociology/Cultural Studies. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-28484-4 (cloth); ISBN 978-0-415-28485-1 (pbk).
  • Fassler, Margot (2014). Frisch, Walter (ed.). Music in the Medieval West. Western Music in Context: A Norton History (1st ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-92915-7.
  • Hoppin, Richard (1978). Medieval Music. The Norton Introduction to Music History (1st ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-09090-1.
  • Károlyi, Ottó. 1994. Modern British Music: The Second British Musical Renaissance – From Elgar to P. Maxwell Davies. Rutherford, Madison, Teaneck: Farleigh Dickinson University Press; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8386-3532-6.
  • Katz, Adele (1946; reprinted 2007), Challenge to Musical Tradition – A New Concept of Tonality. Alfred A. Knopf/reprinted by Katz Press, 444pp., ISBN 1-4067-5761-6.
  • Kennedy, Michael (2006), The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 985 pages, ISBN 0-19-861459-4
  • Kennedy, Michael; Kennedy, Joyce B. (2013) [2012]. Tim Rutherford-Johnson (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6th paperback ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-957854-2.
  • McHard, James L. 2008. The Future of Modern Music: A Philosophical Exploration of Modernist Music in the 20th Century and Beyond, third edition. Livonia, Michigan: Iconic Press ISBN 978-0-9778195-1-5.
  • Metzer, David Joel. 2009. Musical Modernism at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century. Music in the Twentieth Century 26. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51779-9.
  • Meyer, Leonard B. 1994. Music, the Arts, and Ideas: Patterns and Predictions in Twentieth-Century Culture, second edition. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-52143-5.
  • Morgan, Robert P. 1984. "Secret Languages: The Roots of Musical Modernism". Critical Inquiry 10, no. 3 (March): 442–61.
  • Reese, Gustave (1940). Music in the Middle Ages: With an Introduction on the Music of Ancient Times. Lanham, Maryland: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-09750-4.
  • Sullivan, Henry W. 1995. The Beatles with Lacan: Rock 'n' Roll as Requiem for the Modern Age. Sociocriticism: Literature, Society and History Series 4. New York: Lang. ISBN 0-8204-2183-9.
  • Swafford, Jan (1992). The Vintage Guide to Classical Music. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-679-72805-4.
  • Yudkin, Jeremy (1989). Music in Medieval Europe (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-608192-0.

Further reading[]

  • Gray, Anne; (2007) The World of Women in Classical Music, Wordworld Publications. ISBN 1-59975-320-0 (Paperback)
  • Grout, Donald J.; Palisca, Claude V. (1988). A History of Western Music. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-95627-6.
  • Hanning, Barbara Russano; Grout, Donald Jay (1998 rev. 2009) Concise History of Western Music. W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-92803-9 (hardcover).
  • Kamien, Roger (2008) Music: an appreciation; 6th brief ed. McGraw-Hill ISBN 978-0-07-340134-8
  • Scholes, Percy Alfred; Arnold, Denis (1988) The New Oxford Companion to Music. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-311316-3 (paperback).
  • Schick, Kyle (2012). "Improvisation: Performer as Co-composer", Musical Offerings: Vol. 3: No. 1, Article 3.
  • Sorce Keller, Marcello (2019) "Classical Music", Janet Sturman (ed.) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Music and Culture. Los Angeles: SAGE Reference, 2019, Vol. II, 561-567.
  • Sorce Keller, Marcello (2011) What Makes Music European. Looking Beyond Sound. Latham, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press.
  • Taruskin, Richard (2005, rev. paperback version 2009) Oxford History of Western Music. Oxford University Press (US). ISBN 978-0-19-516979-9 (Hardback), ISBN 978-0-19-538630-1 (Paperback)

External links[]

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