National Democratic Congress (Ghana)

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National Democratic Congress
LeaderSamuel Ofosu-Ampofo
ChairpersonSamuel Ofosu-Ampofo
General SecretaryAsiedu Nketia
FounderJerry Rawlings
Founded28 July 1992; 29 years ago (1992-07-28)
HeadquartersAdama Ave, Adabraka, Accra
Student wingTEIN
IdeologySocial democracy
Political positionCentre-left
International affiliationProgressive Alliance
Socialist International
Green, White, Red, Black
SloganUnity, Stability and Development
"Arise, Arise for Ghana"[1]
137 / 275
Pan-African Parliament
3 / 5
Election symbol
The Umbrella with the Head of a Dove at the Tip
Party flag
Flag of the National Democratic Congress (Ghana).svg

The National Democratic Congress (NDC) is a social democratic political party in Ghana, founded by Jerry Rawlings, who was Head of State of Ghana from 1981 to 1993 and the President of Ghana from 1993 to 2001. Following the formation of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC), which ruled Ghana following the military coup d'état on 31 December 1981, there was pressure from the international community to restore democracy. The NDC was formed as the ruling party ahead of elections in 1992, in which Rawlings was elected president, and in 1996 Rawlings was re-elected as the NDC candidate. Rawlings' second term ended in 2001.

The NDC lost the presidency in the 2000 election, and it was not until the 2008 election, that they regained it with John Atta Mills as its candidate. They established the 1992 constitution of Ghana

The NDC party symbol is an umbrella with the head of a dove at the tip. The party colors are red, white, green, and black, and the party slogan or motto is "Unity, stability, and development." Internationally, the NDC is a member of the Progressive Alliance[2] and Socialist International.[3]

On 9 December 2012, the Electoral Commission of Ghana declared NDC candidate John Dramani Mahama to be President-elect after a hotly contested race in which he won 50.7% of votes cast.[4]


The National Democratic Congress was founded by Jerry Rawlings, who had been the military leader of Ghana since 1981. In 1992, the National Democratic Congress led the successful transition to multi-party competition, an example of authoritarian-led democratization. The NDC won the 1992 and 1996 elections.[5]

2000 elections[]

The 2000 election was the first presidential election since 1992 that an incumbent president was not on the ballot. Jerry Rawlings' eight-year tenure had expired as per the Constitution of Ghana. John Atta Mills became the presidential candidate of the National Democratic Congress at a special delegate congress held in Ho in the Volta Region of Ghana. He was popularly acclaimed the presidential candidate of the party for the 2000 presidential election. Vice-President. John Atta Mills lost in 2000 to New Patriotic Party's John Kufour after two rounds of voting.

2004 elections[]

In the 2004 elections the party's manifesto called for "A Better Ghana".[6] John Atta Mills ran again for the NDC in the 2004 presidential elections with his running mate Alhaji Muhammad Mumuni.[7][8] He won 44.6% of the vote, but lost to the New Patriotic Party. In the general elections held on 7 December 2004, the party won only 94 of the 230 seats.

2008 elections[]

On 21 December 2006, Mills was overwhelmingly elected by the NDC as its candidate for the 2008 presidential election with a majority of 81.4%, or 1,362 votes. Ekwow Spio-Garbrah was second with 8.7% (146 votes), Alhaji Mahama Iddrisu was third with 8.2% (137 votes), and Eddie Annan was fourth with 1.7% (28 votes).[9] In April 2008, John Mahama was chosen as the party's vice-presidential candidate.[10] On 3 January 2009, Mills was certified as the victor of the 28 December 2008 run-off election and became the next president of Ghana.[11]

2012 transfer of power and elections[]

President John Atta Mills died, after a short illness, in the afternoon of 24 July 2012 while still in office. Vice President John Dramani Mahama of the NDC was sworn in as president that evening.[12] The NDC picked John Dramani Mahama for their presidential candidate and sitting vice president Paa Kwesi Amissah-Arthur as their vice-presidential candidate for the 2012 elections.

2016 primaries[]

In November 2015 after securing an overwhelming 1,199 118 out of a total of 1, 286, 728 votes representing 95.10% party members in the presidential primaries, President John Dramani Mahama was endorsed to lead the NDC in the 2016 general elections.[13]

2020 elections[]

Ahead of the 2020 elections, In February 2019, John Dramani Mahama was confirmed as the candidate of the opposition National Democratic Congress to contest in the 2020 elections, the incumbent president Nana Akufo-Addo who unseated Mahama in a 2016 election, capitalizing on an economy that was slowing due to falling prices for gold, oil and cocoa exports.[14] He won the National Democratic Congress primaries by securing an overwhelming 213,487 votes representing 95.23 percent of the total valid votes cast with the other six contenders managing with about 4 percent of the votes.[15][16][17]

On 25 June 2020 the NDC led by its General Secretary Asiedu Nketiah, lost a case in the Supreme Court of Ghana in which the party had sought to achieve the inclusion of old Voter ID cards in the Electoral Commission's compilation of a New Voter's Register, among other reliefs.[18]

In the 2020 elections, 18 members of the party who sought to run as independent candidates lost their membership. All who endorsed the forms of the candidates and participated in their campaigns were also expelled.[19]

Electoral history[]

Presidential elections[]

Election Candidate Votes % Votes % Result
First Round Second Round
1992 Jerry Rawlings 2,327,600 58.4% - - Elected Green tickY
1996 4,099,758 57.4% - - Elected Green tickY
2000 John Atta Mills 2,895,575 44.8% 2,728,241 43.3% Lost Red XN
2004 3,850,368 44.6% - - Lost Red XN
2008 4,056,634 47.9% 4,501,466 50.1% Elected Green tickY
2012 John Dramani Mahama 5,574,761 50.7% - - Elected Green tickY
2016 4,713,277 44.4% - - Lost Red XN
2020 6,213,182 47.36% - - Lost Red XN

Parliamentary elections[]

Election Votes % Seats +/– Position Result
1992 1,521,629 77.5%
189 / 200
Increase 189 Increase 1st Supermajority government
1996 4,099,758 57.4%
133 / 200
Decrease 56 Steady 1st Majority government
2000 2,690,360 57.4%
91 / 200
Decrease 42 Decrease 2nd Opposition
2004 3,567,021 40.9%
94 / 230
Increase 3 Steady 2nd Opposition
2008 3,776,917 44.2%
116 / 230
Increase 22 Increase 1st Majority government
2012 5,155,617 46.7%
148 / 275
Increase 32 Steady 1st Majority government
2016 4,713,277 44.4%
104 / 275
Decrease 44 Decrease 2nd Opposition
2020 6,094,478 46.2%
137 / 275
Increase 32 Steady 2nd Opposition

Governments formed[]

Since the NDC was formed, it has formed two governments following elections, and a third following the death of President Mills. The list of governments is as follows:

National Executives[]

The National Democratic Congress holds elections every four years to elect its national executives.

2018 to present[]

The National Democratic Congress held its national delegates conference on November 17–19 at the Ghana International Trade Fair Centre, La, Accra. Below is the full list; National Chairman – Samuel Ofosu-Ampofo, First Vice Chairman – Chief Sofo Azorka., Second Vice Chairperson Sherry Ayitey, Third Vice Chairman – Alhaji Said Sinare, General Secretary – Johnson Asiedu-Nketia, First Deputy General Secretary – Madam Barbara Serwaa Asamoah, Second Deputy General Secretary – Peter Boamah Otokonor, National Organiser – Joshua Hamido Akamba, First Deputy National Organiser – Kobby Barlon, Second Deputy National Organiser – Chief Hamilton Biney Nixon, National Communications Director – Sammy Gyamfi, First Deputy Communications Director – Kwaku Boahene, Second Deputy National Communications Director – Godwin Ako Gunn, The National Zongo Caucus Coordinator – Alhaji Mamah Mohammed, The National Executive Committee Members: Madam Evelyn Enyonam Mensa, Alhaji Adramani Haribu, Sheriff Abdul Nasiru, Alhaji Babanlame Abu Sadat and Mr William Wilson Agbleke, National Youth Organiser – George Opare Addo, First Deputy National Youth Organiser – Edem Agbana, Second Deputy National Youth Organiser – Ruth Dela Sedoh, National Women’s Organiser – Hanna Louisa Bissiw, First Deputy National Women’s Organiser – Maame Efua Sekyi Addo, Second National Women’s Organiser – Madam Abigail Elorm.[20]

Death of the Founder[]

The NDC decided to hold a vigil in memory of JJ Rawlings,[21] the founder of the party who died on 12 November 2020 at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital.[22]


  1. ^ "Dr. Spio replaces Jewel Ackah in NDC song composition". 20 October 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  2. ^ "List of Political Parties and Associated Partners of the Progressive Alliance". Archived from the original on 2 March 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  3. ^ List of Member Parties of the Socialist International Archived 3 November 2013 at
  4. ^ "Presidential Candidates Ghana Elections 2012". GhanaWeb. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  5. ^ Riedl, Rachel Beatty; Slater, Dan; Wong, Joseph; Ziblatt, Daniel (2020). "Authoritarian-Led Democratization". Annual Review of Political Science. 23 (1): 315–332. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-052318-025732. ISSN 1094-2939.
  6. ^ "National Democratic Congress Manifesto 2004 "A Better Ghana"" (PDF). GhanaWeb. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2007.
  7. ^ "Atta-Mills formally nominates Mumuni as Running mate". Ghana Web. 11 October 2004. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  8. ^ "NDC running mate saga – Alhaji Mumuni is also disappointed". My Joy Online. 12 April 2008. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  9. ^ Ghana News Agency (GNA) (22 December 2006). "NDC Congress Results – Prof Wins". Modern Ghana. Archived from the original on 19 March 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  10. ^ "Mills Chooses John Mahama As Running Mate". ModernGhana. 10 April 2008. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008.
  11. ^ "Opposition Leader Wins Ghana Poll". BBC. 3 January 2009. Archived from the original on 4 January 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  12. ^ "The Executive - President of the Republic of Ghana". Ghana Government Portal. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012.
  13. ^ Ghana Web (22 November 2015). "Mahama Gets 95.10% NDC Endorsement For 2016 Elections". Ghana Web. Ghana Web. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  14. ^ "Ghana's ex-President Mahama nominated to contest 2020 election". Reuters. 27 February 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  15. ^ "Mahama sweeps 95% votes to become NDC flagbearer for 2020". Citinewsroom - Comprehensive News in Ghana. 23 February 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  16. ^ "Ghana opposition NDC elect John Mahama as flagbearer for dema 2020 'bobolebobo' election campaign". BBC News Pidgin. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  17. ^ FM, Peace. "2019 NDC Presidential Primaries". 2019 NDC Presidential Primaries - Peace FM. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  18. ^ "NDC 'walked away with nothing', Supreme Court ruling a clear loss – Godfred Dame". Citinewsroom - Comprehensive News in Ghana. 26 June 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  19. ^ "NDC sacks 18 members for contesting 2020 polls as independent candidates". Graphic Online. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  20. ^ "Full list of elected NDC national officers". Ghana Business News. 11 November 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  21. ^ "NDC to hold vigil in memory of Rawlings on Sunday". Graphic Online. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  22. ^ "Bury Rawlings in Keta – Family demands". Graphic Online. Retrieved 14 November 2020.

External links[]

Preceded by Governments of Ghana
Rawlings government

1993 – 2001
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Kufuor government
(New Patriotic Party)
Governments of Ghana
Mills government
& Mahama government

2009 – 2017
Succeeded by
Akufo-Addo government
(New Patriotic Party)
Retrieved from ""