Courtesy name

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Courtesy name (Zi)
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese(表) 字
Hanyu Pinyin(biǎo) zì
Vietnamese name
Korean name
Revised Romanizationja
Japanese name
Revised Hepburnazana

A courtesy name (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; lit. 'character'), also known as a style name,[1] is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name.[2] This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, including China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.[3]

The courtesy name would replace a man's given name as he entered adulthood.[4] It could be given either by the parents or by a private teacher on the first day of school. Women might adopt a zi in place of their given name upon marriage.[4] One also may adopt a self-chosen courtesy name.

A courtesy name is not to be confused with an art name (hào, Chinese: , Korean: ), another frequently mentioned term for an alternative name in Asian culture-based context. An art name is usually associated with art and is more of a pen name or a pseudonym that is more spontaneous, compared to a courtesy name.


The , sometimes called the biǎozì (表字) or "courtesy name", is a name traditionally given to Chinese men at the age of 20, marking their coming of age. It was sometimes given to women upon marriage. The practice is no longer common in modern Chinese society. According to the Book of Rites, after a man reached adulthood, it was disrespectful for others of the same generation to address him by his given name, or míng. Thus, the given name was reserved for oneself and one's elders, whereas the would be used by adults of the same generation to refer to one another on formal occasions or in writing; hence the term "courtesy name".

The is mostly disyllabic, consisting of two Chinese characters, and is often based on the meaning of the míng or given name. For example, Chiang Kai-shek's (介石, romanized as Kai-shek) and ming (中正, romanized as Chung-cheng) are both from the hexagram of I Ching.

Yan Zhitui of the Northern Qi dynasty asserted that whereas the purpose of the míng was to distinguish one person from another, the should express the bearer's moral integrity.

Another way to form a is to use the homophonic character () – a respectful title for a man – as the first character of the disyllabic . Thus, for example, Gongsun Qiao's was Zǐchǎn (子產), and Du Fu's: Zǐměi (子美).

It is also common to construct a by using as the first character one which expresses the bearer's birth order among male siblings in his family. Thus Confucius, whose name was Kǒng Qiū (孔丘), was given the Zhòngní (仲尼), where the first character zhòng indicates that he was the second son born into his family. The characters commonly used are bó () for the first, zhòng () for the second, shū () for the third, and jì () typically for the youngest, if the family consists of more than three sons. General Sun Jian's four sons, for instance, were Sun Ce (伯符, Bófú), Sun Quan (仲謀, Zhòngmóu), Sun Yi (叔弼, Shūbì) and Sun Kuang (季佐, Jìzuǒ).

The use of began during the Shang dynasty, and slowly developed into a system which became most widespread during the succeeding Zhou dynasty. During this period, women were also given . The given to a woman was generally composed of a character indicating her birth order among female siblings and her surname. For example, Mèng Jiāng (孟姜) was the eldest daughter in the Jiāng family.

Prior to the twentieth century, sinicized Koreans, Vietnamese, and Japanese were also referred to by their . The practice was also adopted by some Mongols and Manchus after the Qing conquest of China.


Chinese Family name Given name Courtesy name
Lǎozǐ 老子 Ěr Bóyáng 伯陽
Kǒngzǐ (Confucius) 孔子 Kǒng Qiū Zhòngní 仲尼
Sūnzǐ (Sun Tzu) 孫子 Sūn Chángqīng 長卿
Cáo Cāo 曹操 Cáo Cāo Mèngdé 孟德
Guān Yǔ 關羽 Guān Yúncháng 雲長
Liú Bèi 劉備 Liú Bèi Xuándé 玄德
Zhūgé Liàng 諸葛亮 Zhūgé 諸葛 Liàng Kǒngmíng 孔明
Zhào Yún 趙雲 Zhào Yún Zǐlóng 子龍
Lǐ Bái 李白 Bái Tàibái 太白
Sū Dōngpō 蘇東坡 Shì Zǐzhān 子瞻
Yuè Fēi 岳飛 Yuè Fēi Péngjǔ 鵬舉
Yuán Chónghuàn 袁崇煥 Yuán Chónghuàn 崇煥 Yuánsù 元素
Liú Jī 劉基 Liú Bówēn 伯溫
Táng Yín 唐寅 Táng Yín Bóhǔ 伯虎
Máo Zédōng 毛澤東 Máo Zédōng 澤東 Rùnzhī 潤之
Chiang Kai-shek 蔣介石 Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng 中正 Jièshí 介石

See also[]

  • Cognomen, the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome


  1. ^ Tianjun Liu, Xiao Mei Qiang (2013). Chinese Medical Qigong. p. 590. ISBN 978-1848190962. Mencius (371—289 BCE), born in Zou county (Shandong province), first name Ke, style name Zi Yu, was a famous philosopher, educator, politician, and expert on the Qigong life nurturing of Confucius in the Zhanguo Period.
  2. ^ Origins of Chinese Names. 2007. p. 142. ISBN 978-9812294623. In ancient times, besides having a surname and a given name, one would have a courtesy name 'Zì' as well. The courtesy name was the proper form of address for an adult. On reaching 20 years of age, young men would 'put on the hat' as ...
  3. ^ Names of Persons and Titles of Rulers
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b "Qū lǐ shàng" 曲禮上 [Summary of the Rules of Propriety Part 1]. Lǐjì 禮記 [Book of Rites]. Line 44. A son at twenty is capped, and receives his appellation....When a daughter is promised in marriage, she assumes the hair-pin, and receives her appellation.
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