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Donough MacCarty, 1st Earl of Clancarty

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Sir Donough MacCarty
Earl of Clancarty
Detail (head) of a painted 3/4-length portrait of Donough MacCarty, 1st Earl of Clancarty, showing a clean-shaven man with long curly hair or such a wig, clad in armour, standing in front of some drapery opening on a view of a distant landscape
PredecessorCharles, 1st Viscount Muskerry
SuccessorCharles James, 2nd Earl of Clancarty (an infant)
Died4 or 5 August 1665
Spouse(s)Eleanor Butler
FatherCharles, 1st Viscount Muskerry
MotherMargaret O'Brien

Sir Donough MacCarty,[a] 1st Earl of Clancarty (1594–1665), was an Irish magnate, soldier, and politician. He succeeded as 2nd Viscount Muskerry in 1641. He rebelled against Charles I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, demanding religious freedom as a Catholic and defending the rights of the Gaelic nobility in the Irish Catholic Confederation. Later, he supported the King against his Parliamentarian enemies during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, a part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, also known as the British Civil War.

He sat in the House of Commons of the Irish parliaments of 1634–1635 and 1640–1649 where he opposed Strafford, Charles I's authoritarian chief governor.[b] In 1641 he contributed to Strafford's demise. He joined the Irish rebellion of 1641 when it reached his estates in Munster. He fought the government at the Siege of Limerick (1642) and the Battle of Liscarroll. He joined the Irish Catholic Confederates and sat on their Supreme Council. He led the Confederates' peace party, which opposed the clerical faction led by Rinuccini, the papal nuncio. He fought in the Irish Confederate Wars, commanding the infantry at the Battle of Cloughleagh in June 1643. He negotiated the cease-fire of September 1643, and the peace of 1646 between the Confederates and the King. In 1646 he captured the Parliamentarian-held Bunratty Castle. During the Cromwellian conquest, he lost the Battle of Knocknaclashy in 1651 but held on until 1652, being one of the last to surrender.

In 1653 during the Commonwealth he stood trial for war crimes but was acquitted. In exile on the continent, Charles II created him Earl of Clancarty. He recovered his lands at the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.

A shield of arms showing a red deer on a white ground
Arms of MacCarty[c]

Birth and origins[]

Donough MacCarty was born in 1594 in County Cork, most likely at Blarney Castle or Macroom Castle, residences of his parents.[19] He was the second[20] but eldest surviving son of Charles (alias Cormac Oge[21]) MacCarthy and his first wife Margaret O'Brien.[22] His father was at that time known as Sir Charles MacCarthy[23] while his paternal grandfather, Cormac MacDermot MacCarthy, held the title as 16th Lord of Muskerry[d][25] and owned the ancestral land covering large parts of central County Cork.[26][27] His father's family were the MacCarthys of Muskerry,[28] a Gaelic Irish dynasty that had branched from the MacCarthy-Mor line in the 14th century[29][30][15] when a younger son received Muskerry as appanage.[31]

Donough's mother was the eldest daughter of Donogh O'Brien, 4th Earl of Thomond.[32] Donough was named for this grandfather (there were no Donoughs in the line of the MacCarthy of Muskerry).[33] The name is an anglicised, shortened form of the Gaelic first name Donnchadh.[34] Her family, the O'Briens, were another Gaelic Irish dynasty, which descended from Brian Boru, medieval high king of Ireland.[35] His parents had married about 1590.[36] He had a brother[e] and five sisters.[f]

Family tree
Donough MacCarty with wife, parents, and other selected relatives.[g]
4th Earl

d. 1624
16th Lord

7th Viscount

11th Earl


d. c. 1599
1st Viscount

d. 1641

d. 1619
1st Earl

1st Duke

d. 1722

c. 1633 – 1665

d. 1698

c. 1643 – 1694
d. 1703
3rd Earl

d. 1676

d. 1698
Charles James
2nd Earl
4th Earl


XXXSubject of
the article
XXXLords & Viscounts Muskerry,
as well as Earls of Clancarty
XXXEarls & dukes
of Ormond
*d.v.p. = predeceased his father (decessit vita patris)
**courtesy title


Although most Irish remained Catholics under the Protestant monarchs Henry VIII[50] and Queen Elizabeth,[51] both of Donough's grandfathers were Protestants. His paternal grandfather, Cormac MacDermot MacCarthy, had conformed to the established religion.[52] Donough's maternal grandfather, Donogh O'Brien, 4th Earl of Thomond, had been brought up as Protestant at the English court.[53][54][55] Donough's father had studied at Oxford University[56] where Catholics were not admitted[57] but later became a staunch Catholic.[58][59]

Early life, marriage, and children[]

MacCarty's mother died in or before 1599 as his father remarried that year.[60] His stepmother was Ellen, widow of Donnell MacCarthy-Reagh of Kilbrittain and eldest daughter of David Roche, 7th Viscount Fermoy.[61][62] No children from this marriage seem to be known.[63][64] His stepmother's father was a zealous Catholic[65][66] but a loyal supporter of the government.[67]

In 1616[68] MacCarty's father succeeded as the 17th Lord of Muskerry.[69][70] In 1628 King Charles I created MacCarty's father Baron Blarney and Viscount Muskerry. The titles were probably purchased.[71] They had a special remainder[72] that designated Donough as successor, excluding his elder brother, who was alive at the time but probably intellectually disabled.[37]

MacCarty married Eleanor Butler[h] some time before 1633 as their eldest son was born in 1633 or 1634.[i] She was a Catholic, the eldest daughter of Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles.[74] MacCarty was already in his late thirties while she was about twenty.[j] He had been married before and had a son Donall from this wife,[4] but this marriage is ignored by some genealogical sources.[81][82][83]

His marriage to Eleanor made him a brother-in-law of James Butler, who succeeded as 12th Earl of Ormond in 1633.[84] Ormond was a Protestant,[85] as he had been brought up in England as a ward under the care of the Archbishop of Canterbury.[86]

Donough and Helen had three sons:[87]

  1. Charles (1633 or 1634 – 1665),[80] also called Cormac,[88] predeceased his father, being slain at sea in the Battle of Lowestoft[79]
  2. Callaghan (died 1676),[89] succeeded his elder brother's infant son, Charles James, as the 3rd Earl of Clancarty[90]
  3. Justin (c. 1643 – 1694),[91][92] fought for the Jacobites and became Viscount Mountcashel[93]

—and two daughters:[87]

  1. Helen (died 1722),[94] became Countess of Clanricarde. She married first John FitzGerald of Dromana and secondly the 7th Earl of Clanricarde.[95][96]
  2. Margaret (died 1704), became Countess of Fingall by marrying Luke Plunket, 3rd Earl of Fingall[97]
A painted portrait of a man with short dark hair and a moustache of a lighter colour with a mouche on the lower lip. He wears a dark jacket and a wide flat band collar with rectangular points.
Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford


When Charles I summoned the Irish Parliament of 1634–1635, MacCarty, already in his forties, stood for Cork County and was elected[7] as one of its two "knights of the shire" as county MPs[98] were then called.[99] He had been knighted in 1634.[100] The Lord Deputy of Ireland, Thomas Wentworth[101] (the future Lord Strafford[102]) demanded taxes: six subsidies of £50,000[103] (equivalent to about £8,400,000 in 2019[104]) were passed unanimously.[105][106] The parliament also belatedly and incompletely ratified the Graces[107] of 1628,[108] in which the King conceded rights for money.[109]

MacCarty was re-elected for Cork County to the Irish Parliament of 1640–1649.[k] The parliamentary records list him as a knight,[5] but about 1638 his father had bought him a baronetcy of Nova Scotia.[113] The King sold these for 3,000 merk Scots each,[114] equivalent to £166 13s. 4d. sterling[l] (equivalent to about £260,000 in 2019[104]). Under Strafford's guidance the parliament unanimously voted four subsidies of £45,000[116] (equivalent to about £8,100,000 in 2019[104]) to raise an Irish army of 9,000[117] for use against the Scots in the Second Bishops' War.[118]

In April Strafford left Ireland[119] to advise the King during the Short Parliament at Westminster.[120] The Irish Commons saw their chance to complain about Strafford's authoritarian regime. They formed a committee for grievances of which MacCarty was a member.[121] The committee prepared a remonstrance, called the November Petition, which was signed by all its members.[122] The petition was then voted and approved by the Commons.[123] MacCarty also was part of the delegation of 13 MPs[124] that went to London in November[125] to submit the petition to the King.[126] The Lords sent a separate delegation for their grievances. MacCarty's father was part of it.[12][127]

In February 1641, MacCarthy's father, aged about 70, died in London[128] during his parliamentary mission. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.[129] MacCarty succeeded as 2nd Viscount Muskerry. He lost his seat in the Commons where he was replaced by Redmond Roche, an uncle by his stepmother.[130] As his ailing elder brother had died some time before,[26] the title's special remainder did not need to be invoked. In March when Strafford was tried by the English House of Lords,[131] Muskerry gave evidence that Strafford had prevented people from seeing the King.[132] Back in Dublin Muskerry took his seat in the Irish House of Lords.[133]

A 3/4-length painted portrait of Donough MacCarty, probably 2nd Viscount Muskerry at the time, showing a clean-shaven man with long curly hair or such a wig, wearing a lace jabot and clad in armour with a yellow sash with two tassels around his waist, standing in front of some drapery opening on a view on a distant landscape with a palace and a French garden in front of it
Donough MacCarty as military commander

Irish wars[]

Ireland suffered 11 years of war from 1641 to 1652, which can be divided into the Rebellion of 1641, the Confederate Wars, and the Cromwellian Conquest. This Eleven Year War[134][135] in turn forms part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms,[136] also known as the British Civil Wars.[137][138] Seeing the King weak[139] and trying to oppose plantations,[140] Sir Phelim O'Neill launched the Rebellion from the northern province of Ulster in October 1641.[141] He pretended, in his Proclamation of Dungannon,[142] to have a royal commission sanctioning his actions.[143]


In Munster Muskerry socialised with Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, an English Protestant established in Ireland, with whom he had opposed Strafford. News of the outbreak of the rebellion reached Lord Cork at a dinner at Castlelyons where David Barry, 1st Earl of Barrymore entertained Muskerry and Cork's son Roger, 1st Baron Broghill.[144] Barrymore was an Irish Protestant and Cork's son-in-law. Muskerry would later oppose Barrymore and Broghill in battle, but in February 1642 Muskerry still sided with Sir William St Leger, Lord President of Munster, against the rebels.[145] Muskerry offered to raise an armed force of his tenants and dependants to maintain law and order.[146] He and his wife tried to save Protestants fleeing from the rebels.[147][148][149] In January 1642 a Munster rebel army under Maurice Roche, 8th Viscount Fermoy besieged Lord Cork in Youghal.[150]

However, the rebellion was gaining ground,[151] and on 2 March,[m] Muskerry changed sides,[153] to defend the Catholic faith and the King[154] as he explained on 17 March in a letter to Barrymore.[155][156] Muskerry believed Phelim O'Neill acted under a royal warrant and ignored that the King had already denounced the Irish rebels as traitors in January.[157][158] Hearing of his defection, the Irish Parliament declared Muskerry's estates forfeit.[159][160] He lost the Dublin townhouse that his father had built about 1640,[161] but the government was unable to seize his Munster estates.[162][163]

Like many Catholic royalists, Muskerry imagined Charles could be convinced to accept Catholicism in Ireland as he accepted Presbyterianism in Scotland.[164] He was also prompted to take up arms by the atrocities committed by St Leger against the Catholic population[165][166] and by the approach of Mountgarret's rebel army entering Munster.[167][168] Muskerry refused to serve under Mountgarret and competed for the leadership in Munster with Fermoy,[169] an uncle by his stepmother. Fermoy had led the rebellion in Munster before Muskerry joined[170] and outclassed him in terms of precedence,[n] but Muskerry was richer.[173] At a meeting of the leaders at Blarney, Garret Barry, a veteran of the Spanish Army of Flanders, was made general of the Munster rebels' army as a compromise.[174] Muskerry was his second-in-command.[175]

In March and April, Muskerry and Fermoy[176] with 4,000 men[177] unsuccessfully besieged St Leger in Cork City,[178] trying to deny the harbour to the English.[179] On 13 April 1642 Murrough O'Brien, 6th Baron of Inchiquin, an Irish Protestant,[85] lifted the siege by driving the rebels from their base at Rochfordstown.[180][181] Muskerry lost his armour, tent, and trunks in this action.[182] On 16 May, Muskerry and Fermoy captured at Castlelyons, Barrymore's seat.[183] St Leger died on 2 July,[184] and Inchiquin, the vice-president, took over the command of the government forces in Munster.[185][186]

A medieval castle on a river
Limerick Castle, towers and western curtain wall on the River Shannon

Siege of Limerick[]

In May and June 1642, Muskerry, Garret Barry, Patrick Purcell of Croagh, and Fermoy attacked Limerick.[187] The town opened its gates willingly,[188] but the Protestants defended King John's Castle in the Siege of Limerick. They were led by George Courtenay, 1st Baronet, of Newcastle,[189] who was the constable of Limerick Castle.[190]

Muskerry had a cannon placed on the tower of St Mary's Cathedral, which overlooked the castle.[191] The besiegers attacked the castle's eastern wall and the bastion on its south-east corner by digging mines.[192] The castle surrendered on 21 June and Muskerry took possession.[193] The rebels had already attacked castles in the Connello area west of Limerick, which had been settled with English during the Plantation of Munster.[194] On 26 March Patrick Purcell had laid siege to Castletown,[195] defended by Hardress Waller, the future Cromwellian general.[196][197] The castle fell in May.[198] In July, Muskerry and Patrick Purcell used artillery, captured at King John's Castle, to take , defended by Elizabeth Dowdall,[199] Waller's mother-in-law.[200][201]

A rectangular castle with cylindrical corner towers surrounded by a moat and with a ravelin before the gate.
Liscarroll Castle, captured by Muskerry the day before the battle

Siege and Battle of Liscarroll[]

The Munster rebels then attacked the castles of Sir Philip Perceval, an English knight, who owned land to the east and south of Limerick. In the summer of 1642 Muskerry took Annagh Castle, County Tipperary, and in August besieged Liscarroll Castle, County Cork. The castle surrendered on 2 September.[o] The next day Inchiquin with the royal Munster army appeared before the castle.[205] Despite inferior numbers[206] the royalists defeated the rebels under General Garret Barry in the ensuing Battle of Liscarroll.[207][208] Muskerry allegedly panicked, fled, and caused others to flee.[209] His Protestant acquaintance Barrymore died on 29 September, supposedly of wounds received in the battle.[210]


In 1642 the rebels organised themselves at the national level in the Irish Catholic Confederation. They were helped by the Catholic church, which held a general synod in May 1642 at Kilkenny,[211] that declared the war lawful and drew up an oath of association.[212] The synod was followed by the first Confederate General Assembly at Kilkenny in October, which Muskerry attended.[213][214] He was not elected to the Supreme Council but his rival Fermoy was.[215] The assembly chose Mountgarret as president of the Confederation[216] and Garret Barry as the general of the Munster army,[217] despite his recent defeat and advanced age. Barry seems to have held the position until his death in March 1646 in Limerick,[218] but others commanded in his stead. In 1643 Muskerry and Fermoy were both elected to the Supreme Council.[p]

Muskerry commanded the infantry at the Battle of Cloughleagh on 4 June 1643[224] where the Irish cavalry under James Tuchet, 3rd Earl of Castlehaven, routed a detachment of Inchiquin's troops[225][226] under , who had attacked and taken the near Fermoy the day before.[227] Muskerry with the infantry arrived only after the decisive cavalry charge. Castlehaven considered him slow and called him "the old general".[228]

Later that year, Muskerry led the Munster army in an offensive against Inchiquin in County Waterford.[229] Lieutenant-Colonel, Patrick Purcell, unsuccessfully besieged Lismore Castle, the seat of the Earls of Cork.[230] Muskerry was about to take the town of Cappoquin but engaged in parleys with complex conditions[231] and was outwitted by Inchiquin's delaying tactics, allowing him to keep the town until it was saved by the cease-fire in September.[232]

A painted portrait of a clean-shaven man with long fair curly hair or such a wig wearing a lace jabot.
The Marquess of Ormond

Cessation and Oxford conference[]

Muskerry, like most of the magnates among the Confederates, was afraid to lose title and land when the King regained control. He therefore adhered to a faction within the Confederates, called the peace party or the Ormondists,[233] that sought an agreement that would protect against such a loss. The King, on the other hand, sought peace with the Confederates to be able to withdraw troops from Ireland for use in the First English Civil War.[234] In 1643, the King asked Lord Ormond to open talks with the Confederates.[235] On 15 September 1643 at Sigginstown, Strafford's unfinished house,[236] the Confederates signed a cease-fire with Ormond, called the "Cessation".[232] Muskerry was one of the signatories for the Confederates.[237][238] The Confederates agreed to pay the King £30,000 (equivalent to about £5,100,000 in 2019[104]) in several instalments.[239] In return, the Confederates gained some degree of diplomatic recognition.[240] The articles of the Cessation[241] gave Lismore Castle and Cappoquin to Inchiquin.[242]

In November 1643 the Supreme Council appointed seven delegates[243] to submit grievances to the King[244] and negotiate a peace treaty. In January 1644 they obtained safe-conducts from the Lords Justices.[245] It must have been their last days in office as Ormond was sworn-in as lord lieutenant of Ireland on 21 January.[246] The delegates arrived on 24 March at Oxford where the King held his court.[247] Muskerry was the leader of the delegation.[248] He demanded public exercise of the Catholic religion, independence of the Irish Parliament from that of England, and full amnesty for their rebellion.[249][250] The King offered Muskerry an earldom, which he refused.[251] However, a competing Irish Protestant delegation arrived on 17 April.[252][253] At the end of June the Confederate delegates returned to Ireland empty-handed.[254]

The Cessation allowed the Confederates to focus on their war with the Covenanters in Ulster, who were aligned with the Scots and the English Parliament.[255] Owen Roe O'Neill led the Confederate Ulster army, deployed on that front, but the Supreme Council imposed Castlehaven as general-in-chief for the campaign of 1644.[256] Castlehaven marched north to Charlemont but did not bring the Covenanters to battle.[257] In July Inchiquin declared for Parliament,[258] reactivating the southern front around the city of Cork,[259] where the Munster army was deployed. The fourth general assembly, in July 1644, elected the fourth Supreme Council. Muskerry regained his seat,[260][223][222] but Fermoy did not.[261] The cessation had a duration of one year, expiring on 15 September 1644. It was extended twice: by Muskerry and Ormond in Dublin in August 1644 until 1 December;[262][263][264] and by Muskerry and Lord Chancellor Bolton in September until 31 January 1645.[265][266]

In the campaign of 1645, Castlehaven commanded the Munster army in its fight against Inchiquin.[267] Under Castlehaven's command Patrick Purcell took Lismore Castle,[268][269] but Inchiquin doggedly defended the rest.[270] In the fifth general assembly in summer 1645, Muskerry was re-elected to the Supreme Council.[271][223]

A painted portrait of a clean-shaven man wearing a cassock and a skullcap.
Giovanni Battista Rinuccini

Glamorgan Treaty[]

In 1645 the King sent Edward Somerset, Earl of Glamorgan as his personal envoy to Ireland to speed up the peace negotiations with the Confederates.[272] Glamorgan was an English Catholic and son of Henry Somerset, 1st Marquess of Worcester, an important royalist.[273] On 25 August Glamorgan signed the first Glamorgan Treaty with the Confederates. The treaty was held secret.[274] It ceded to the Catholics the churches that the Confederates had seized since the beginning of the rebellion. The treaty was signed among others by Muskerry. A copy of the treaty was found in October by Sir Charles Coote when he surprised and killed Malachias Quelly, bishop of Tuam. Coote divulged the treaty to the English Parliament. The King had to disavow it in January 1646.[275]


In 1645 the pope sent Giovanni Battista Rinuccini as nuncio to the Irish Catholic Confederation.[276] Rinuccini landed in October on Ireland's south-west coast with money and weapons.[277] On his way to Kilkenny, the Confederate capital, Rinuccini visited Macroom Castle where Lady Muskerry and her 11-year-old eldest son, Charles, received him while her husband was negotiating with Ormond in Dublin.[278][279] The nuncio stayed for four days[280] and then continued to Kilkenny arriving on 12 November.[281]

In town the nuncio was attended to by Muskerry, who had just come back from Dublin, and by General Preston.[282] They accompanied him to Kilkenny Castle for his official reception by Mountgarret[283] and escorted him back to his residence.[284]

First Ormond Peace[]

The Confederate assembly on 6 March 1646 authorised its delegates to conclude a peace with Ormond.[285] Muskerry signed the "First Ormond Peace" on 28 March 1646 for the Confederates.[286] The treaty's 30 articles[287] covered civil rights, but left the religious ones to be decided by a future Irish parliament.[288] The parties agreed to defer the treaty's publication for now.[289][290] According to the treaty, the Confederates were expected to send an Irish army of 10,000 men, about half the Confederate army, to England before 1 May, but by then it was already too late. Bristol had fallen in September 1645[291] and Chester in February 1646,[292] depriving the King of his main harbours on the Irish sea.[293][294] Admiral and Captain William Penn patrolled the sea with the Irish Squadron of the Parliamentarian Navy.[295] Muskerry wrote to Ormond on 3 April that the Irish army's expedition to England had to be abandoned.[296] The First English Civil War ended shortly after the First Ormond Peace was signed. The Scots took the King into custody on 5 May[297] and handed him over to the English in January 1647.[298]

A big tower house with square corner towers.
Bunratty Castle, captured by Muskerry in 1646

Siege of Bunratty[]

As the Confederates sent no troops to the King, their armies kept their full strength. The Munster army, under Glamorgan, who was favoured by Rinuccini, was sent to besiege Bunratty Castle near Limerick,[299] into which the 6th Earl of Thomond, a Protestant, had admitted a Parliamentarian garrison in March.[300][301] The Confederates lacked money to pay their army.[302] After a setback on 1 April 1646, in which the garrison drove the besiegers from their camp at Sixmilebridge,[303] the Supreme Council replaced Glamorgan with Muskerry at the end of May.[304][305] Muskerry had Lieutenant-General Purcell, Major-General Stephenson, and Colonel Purcell under him[306] with three Leinster regiments and all the Munster forces.[307] The castle's defences had been modernised by surrounding the castle proper, essentially a big tower house, with modern earthworks and forts defended by cannons.[308] These fortifications abutted on the sea and Bunratty was supported by a small squadron of the Parliamentarian Navy under now-Vice-Admiral Penn. On 9 May, Lord Thomond left Bunratty for England by sea.[309] On 13 June arrived the news of Owen Roe O'Neill's victory over the Covenanters at Benburb,[310][311] won with the financial support from the nuncio.[312] At the end of June Rinuccini came and paid the soldiers £600 (equivalent of about £98,000 in 2019[104]),[313] exhausting the last of his funds.[314] Muskerry brought two heavy cannons from Limerick for the siege.[315] His rivals accused him of having spared the castle because Thomond was his uncle.[316] When on 1 July a chance shot through a window killed McAdam, the Parliamentarian commander,[317] Muskerry pressed on[318] and the castle capitulated on 14 July.[319] The garrison was evacuated to Cork by the Parliamentarian Navy, but had to leave arms, ammunition and provisions behind.[320][321]

Early in 1646, while Muskerry was at the siege of Bunratty, Broghill with a Parliamentarian force from Cork captured Blarney Castle.[322][323] It must have been a bold coup as Muskerry was accused of having betrayed the castle.[324]

Rejection of the First Ormond Peace[]

Muskerry and Ormond confirmed and signed the First Ormond Peace again in July 1646.[325] The peace was thus concluded twice: on 28 March and in July 1646.[326] Muskerry got the treaty ratified by a vote in the Supreme Council despite the nuncio's opposition. Ormond had it proclaimed in Dublin on 30 July[327][328] and the Supreme Council did so in Kilkenny on 3 August.[329]

Rinuccini called a meeting of the clergy held in Waterford which on 12 August 1646 condemned the treaty.[330] Rinuccini then excommunicated Muskerry and others who supported it.[331] On 18 September, Rinuccini overturned the Confederate government in a coup d'état[332] executed with the help of the Ulster Army, which Owen Roe O'Neill had marched to Leinster.[333] On 26 September[334] Rinuccini made himself president and appointed a new, the seventh, Supreme Council[335][336] where Glamorgan, Fermoy, and Owen Roe O'Neill sat.[337] Rinuccini arrested Muskerry, Richard Bellings, and other Ormondist members of the previous Supreme Council.[338] Most were detained in Kilkenny Castle, but Muskerry was put under house arrest.[339][340] Rinuccini replaced Muskerry with Glamorgan as general of the Munster army.[341] Patrick Hackett, a Gaelic poet,[342] Dominican priest, and chaplain in the army, preached against Muskerry and drummed up support for Glamorgan,[343] using Gaelic as his medium as this was still the predominant language among the rank and file.[344][345] Being under arrest in Kilkenny Muskerry missed out on the attempted siege of Dublin by O'Neill and Preston in November 1646.[346][347][348]

Having failed to take Dublin, Rinuccini released Muskerry and other political prisoners as demanded by Nicholas Plunkett,[349] and called a general assembly, which met on 10 January 1647 in Kilkenny.[350] It lasted until the beginning of April. The assembly elected a new Supreme Council, the eighth, with the Marquess of Antrim as president.[351] It was dominated by the clerical faction but also included Muskerry[352][223] and three other Ormondists.[353]

Mutiny of the Munster Army[]

The Supreme Council had in 1647 confirmed Glamorgan, who had become the 2nd Earl of Worcester in December 1646,[354] as general of the Munster Army,[355] but the Confederation lacked the funds to pay the army.[356] Worcester was unpopular with the troops[357] and the Munster gentry[358] because he was English. Several regiments mutinied demanding that Muskerry should be appointed general.[359]

Early in June 1647 the Supreme Council met at Clonmel near the Munster Army's camp.[360] On 12 June Muskerry, together with Patrick Purcell, rode over from the council meeting to the army's camp[361] where the troops acclaimed him as their leader and turned Worcester out of his command.[362] The Supreme Council ignored Muskerry's de facto take-over, upheld Worcester as the de jure commander who then passed the command officially to Muskerry.[363][364] Early in August Muskerry handed the command over to Theobald Viscount Taaffe of Corren, another member of the peace party.[365][366][367] Neither Worcester, not Muskerry, nor Taaffe stopped Inchiquin, who took Cappoquin and Dungarvan in May[368] and sacked Cashel in September.[369]

Decline of the Confederation[]

Meanwhile, on 6 June 1647, Ormond had accepted Colonel Michael Jones with 2,000 Parliamentarian troops into Dublin. On 28 July, Ormond handed Dublin over to the Parliamentarians and left for England.[370][371] In August Preston tried to march on Dublin with the Leinster army, but Jones defeated him at Dungan's Hill.[372] Muskerry called in Owen Roe O'Neill to defend Leinster.[373] In November, Taaffe lost the Battle of Knocknanuss against Inchiquin.[374]

Towards the end of 1647, the Supreme Council sent Muskerry, Geoffrey Browne, and the Marquess of Antrim to negotiate with the exiled Queen Henrietta Maria, at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France. The purpose was twofold: to invite the Prince of Wales, the future Charles II, then aged 17, to Ireland,[375] and to negotiate another peace to replace the one concluded with Ormond.[376] In February 1648 Ormond left England[377] and joined the Queen. Antrim departed before Muskerry and Browne and arrived at the beginning of March.[378] Muskerry and Browne departed in February[379] and had reached Saint-Germain by 23 March.[380] On 24 March 1648, the Queen received the three envoys in an audience.[381] However, 1648 was the year of the Second English Civil War[382] and plans were made for the Prince of Wales to go to Scotland to support the Engagers rather than to go to Ireland, but eventually he stayed in France.[383] With regard to a new peace, Antrim, representing the clerical faction, insisted that no peace should be accepted in Ireland without the approval of the pope and that a Catholic lord lieutenant should be appointed,[384] an office he hoped to obtain for himself.[385]

On 3 April 1648, Inchiquin changed sides, leaving the Parliamentarians and asking the Confederates if he could become their ally.[386] Muskerry convinced the Queen to appoint Ormond as lord lieutenant of Ireland and to accept Inchiquin as an ally.[387] Muskerry returned to Ireland in June to prepare Ormond's arrival.[388] Ormond landed at Cork in September.[389] Muskerry was made Irish lord high admiral and president of the high Court of Admiralty.[390] In November he signed letters of marque for the privateers Mary of Antrim and the St John of Waterford.[391]

In January 1649, the Second Ormond Peace was signed.[392] The Irish Catholic Confederation was dissolved,[393] and replaced with the Royalist Alliance. Power was handed to 12 Commissioners of Trust.[394] Muskerry was one of them and played an important role.[395] On 2 August Jones defeated the Royalist Alliance under Ormond, which had been besieging Dublin, at the Battle of Rathmines.[396]

An engraved portrait of a clean-shaven man wearing a long curly wig and a jabot, clad in armour
General Edmund Ludlow

Cromwellian conquest[]

On 15 August 1649, Oliver Cromwell landed in Dublin.[397] His aims were to avenge the uprising of 1641, confiscate enough Irish Catholic-owned land to pay off some of the English Parliament's debts, and eliminate a dangerous outpost of royalism.[398]

In April 1650, Muskerry lost Macroom Castle, where his family had been living. An Irish force raised by Fermoy[399] and Boetius MacEgan, Catholic Bishop of Ross, tried to relieve the Siege of Clonmel. Led by Colonel David Roche and the bishop, this force passed by Macroom and camped in the castle's park. Macroom's garrison burned the castle and joined Roche's force,[400][401] Cromwell sent Broghill to intercept the Irish which were routed in the Battle of Macroom on 10 April.[402][403][404] Clonmel surrendered to Cromwell in May.[q] Cromwell had to hurry away to counter a threat from Scotland[407][408] and passed the command in Ireland to Henry Ireton on 19 May.[409]

In April 1651 Ulick Burke, 1st Marquess of Clanricarde, appointed Muskerry supreme commander in Munster.[410] Muskerry tried to relieve the Siege of Limerick, but Broghill intercepted and defeated him on 26 July 1651[411] at the Battle of Knocknaclashy (also called Knockbrack), near , west of Kanturk,[412][413] the war's last pitched battle.[414] Limerick surrendered in October.[415]

Muskerry fell back into the mountains of Kerry and based himself at Ross Castle near Killarney,[416] owned by Sir Valentine Browne, his nephew by his sister Mary.[417] Browne, born in 1638, was a minor and had become Muskerry's ward after his father's untimely death.[418] In 1652 the government put a bounty of £500 (about £78,000 in 2019[104]) on Muskerry's head.[419] Muskerry hoped that the Duke of Lorraine would intervene to save the Irish royalists.[420]

A castle on a lake shore with a high keep behind a curtain wall with flanking towers
Ross Castle, Muskerry's last stand

Edmund Ludlow besieged Muskerry in Ross Castle, on the shore of Lough Leane.[421] The defenders were supplied by boat over the lake.[422] Ludlow brought boats of his own[423] whereupon Muskerry surrendered on 27 June 1652[424] after a siege of three weeks.[425] The terms took a possible prosecution into account.[426] Muskerry gave two hostages to guarantee his compliance with the terms: one of his sons[427] and Daniel O'Brien.[428] Muskerry disbanded his 5,000-strong army. He was excluded from pardon of life and estate in the Commonwealth's Act of Settlement on 12 August and therefore lost his estates.[429] His surrender was one of the last, but Clanricarde, 28 June,[430] and Philip O'Reilly, 27 April 1653,[431] surrendered later.

Exile and prosecution[]

Muskerry was allowed to embark for Spain[432] where he was rejected as Ormondist.[433] He then sought employment with the Venetian Republic for himself[434] and the Irish soldiers that he brought with him,[435] but the project fell through. He returned to Ireland late in 1653[436] landing at Cork[437] to recruit soldiers for service on the continent[438] but was arrested for war crimes[439] and detained[440] until the opening of his trial on 1 December in Dublin. He was accused of having been an accessory to murders of English settlers on three occasions.[441]

The first case was the murder of William Deane and others at Kilfinny, County Limerick, by soldiers of the rebels' Munster army on 29 July 1642.[442] The victims died when Lady Dowdall surrendered Kilfinny Castle to Patrick Purcell, who commanded the besiegers.[199] It had been agreed that the English would be allowed to leave escorted by an detachment sent by Inchiquin.[r] The second case was the murder of Mrs Hussey and others near Blarney Castle, County Cork, by Irish soldiers on 1 August 1642. The victims were refugees that Muskerry had sheltered at Macroom and was sending to Cork in a guarded convoy so that they could leave the country.[445][446] The third case was the murder of Roger Skinner and others at Inniskerry, County Cork, in August 1642.[447] Muskerry was acquitted of these three charges.[448] [448]

In February 1654 he was tried for having participated in royalist conspiracies.[449] Lady Ormond, who had been allowed to return to Ireland from her French exile,[450] secretly visited Gerard Lowther, president of the High Court of Justice at the time,[451][452] who gave her legal advice for Muskerry.[453] This helped him convince the court of his innocence and he was acquitted.[454]

In May 1654 he had to defend himself against another murder charge concerning the killing of an unnamed man and woman. He was acquitted.[455]

Muskerry was again allowed to embark for Spain[456] but went to France where Henrietta Maria, now the Queen mother, lived. In July 1654 Charles II and his exile court were about to leave France and start their wanderings in the Netherlands and Germany.[457] Lady Muskerry also lived in Paris.[458] Muskerry's daughter Helen found shelter at the abbey of Port-Royal-des-Champs[459] near Versailles. The abbess, La Mère Angélique, tried to help Muskerry and his Irish soldiers in their need. In November 1654 she wrote to Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga of Poland proposing to employ Muskerry and his followers – 5,000 men – in Polish service.[460] In 1655 Muskerry[461] and Bellings[462] led them to the Polish King,[463][464] who fought the Swedes[465] in the Second Northern War. Muskerry and Bellings returned with £20,000 for Charles II.[466] In 1657 the King sent Muskerry to Madrid to ask the Spanish to transport their Irish exiles to Ireland.[467] Muskerry's eldest son fought the French and Cromwell's English at the Battle of the Dunes in June 1658[468][469] The King, in exile at Brussels, rewarded Muskerry in November 1658 with the title of Earl of Clancarty.[470] The title Viscount Muskerry passed to his eldest son Charles, his heir apparent, as courtesy title.[471]

Restoration and death[]

At the Restoration of the Stuarts, Clancarty, as he now was, returned to Ireland. He used Ormond's influence to recover his estates,[472] which Charles II confirmed to him in his "Gracious Declaration" of 30 November 1660.[473] The Cromwellian occupiers had to move out at once.[474] Now-Admiral William Penn, to whom Macroom had been granted in 1654,[475] was compensated with land at Shanagarry (east of Cork).[476] Similarly, Broghill had to return Blarney,[477] which had been confirmed to him belatedly in 1649.[478] The Clancartys repaired and enlarged Macroom Castle.[479][480] Clancarty also recovered his townhouse, which now became Clancarty House.[481]

Clancarty found Irish Catholic spouses for his eldest son and his two daughters. His eldest son married Margaret Bourke in 1660 or 1661. She was the only child of the 1st Marquess of Clanricarde.[482] His elder daughter Helen married first John FitzGerald of Dromana as his second wife. His first wife, Katharine, daughter of , had died in 1660.[483] She married secondly William Burke, 7th Earl of Clanricarde.[96] His younger daughter Margaret married Lucas Plunket, 3rd Earl of Fingall, before 1666.[484]

In August 1660, Charles II made George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, lord lieutenant of Ireland.[485][486] As Albemarle never went to Ireland, the King appointed three lords justices to govern in his stead.[487] When the King summoned the Parliament of 1661–1666, it was opened by the lords justices on 8 May 1661.[488] Clancarty joined the House of Lords on 20 May.[489] On 11 June Clancarty became the proxy of Lord Inchiquin,[490] therefore voting in his stead. The passing of the Act of Settlement was one of the main purposes of the parliament.[491] Clancarty was absent on 30 May 1662 when the Lords finally passed it.[492] Clancarty sat on the committee that organised the gift of £30,000 (about £4,200,000 in 2019[104]) made to the Duke of Ormond. However, Clancarty's eldest son, Charles MacCarty, replaced him in that function on 19 August.[493] On 11 December, the Lords passed the Irish version of the Tenures Abolition Act 1660.[494] Clancarty attended parliament regularly until April 1663 when he moved to London.[495] He visited his Irish estates in 1664 for a last time and returned to England.[496]

On 3 June 1665, Charles, Viscount Muskerry, Clancarty's eldest son and heir apparent, was killed during the Second Anglo-Dutch War in the Battle of Lowestoft, a naval engagement with the Dutch[s] and was buried on 19 June in Westminster Abbey[499] as his grandfather, the 1st Viscount, had been.[129] Charles left an infant son, called Charles James, who became the new heir apparent.[500]

Only one and a half months later, on 4 or 5 August 1665,[501][502] Clancarty died at Ormond's house at Moor Park, Hertfordshire.[503] Ormond, despite being a Protestant, called in a Catholic priest for the last rites of his friend.[504] The Catholic political pamphlet The Unkinde Deserter of Loyall Men and True Frinds claims that in his last hour Clancarty expressed regret at having trusted Ormond.[14]

Charles's infant son Charles James succeeded his grandfather as the 2nd Earl of Clancarty but died a year later.[505] The succession then reverted to the 1st Earl's second son, Callaghan, who succeeded as the 3rd Earl of Clancarty.[506]

Notes, citations, and sources[]


  1. ^ His first name is variously spelled Donough[1][2] Donogh,[3] Donoch,[4] or Donagh.[5] His family name is variously spelled MacCarty,[3] MacCarthy,[6] McCarthy,[5] M'Carthy,[7] M'Carty,[8] or Mc Carthy.[9] His title as viscount is spelled Muskerry in recent sources,[10][11] but some older ones use Muskery,[12] Muskry,[13] Musgry,[14] or Muscry.[15]
  2. ^ The title "chief governor of Ireland" is a general term for the king's representative and head of the executive in Ireland.[16] Wentworth's (later Strafford's) title was first lord deputy and then lord lieutenant.[17]
  3. ^ Blazoned as: argent, a stag, trippant, gules, attired and unguled, or.[18]
  4. ^ His grandfather is also counted as the 17th Lord of Muskerry.[24]
  5. ^ His elder brother Cormac, probably intellectually disabled,[37] died young[20] predeceasing his father[26]
  6. ^ See his father Charles MacCarthy, 1st Viscount Muskerry, for the list of these five sisters.[38][39][40][41]
  7. ^ This family tree is based on a tree of the Lords of Muskerry,[42] a tree showing Donough and near family around him,[43] and on genealogies of the Earls of Clancarty,[44][45] the MacCarthy of Muskerry family,[46] the Earls of Thomond,[47][48] and the Earls of Ormond.[49] Also see the lists of siblings and children in the text.
  8. ^ Recent sources call MacCarty's wife Eleanor,[73][74][75] but some older ones call her Helena[76] or Ellen.[77] Her younger sister who married Sir Andrew Aylmer was also known as Eleanor.[78]
  9. ^ MacCarty's eldest son, Charles (or Cormac), was born between 4 June 1633 and 3 June 1634 as he died on 3 June 1635,[79] aged 31.[80]
  10. ^ Her age when she married (about 20) can be deduced as John Lodge states that she died in April 1682 aged 70.[77]
  11. ^ Also called the "Parliament of 1639–1648"[110] as its start date and end date are both affected by the shift in the start of the year from 25 March to 1 January in the calendar reform of 1750. The opening date, the 16 March 1640, was still in 1639 according to the Old Style (O.S.) calendar, in force in Great Britain and Ireland at the time, under which each year ended on 5 April. Similarly, the end date, 30 January 1649 (the execution of Charles I),[111] was still in 1648 according to O.S.[112]
  12. ^ The merk Scots was worth 2/3 of a pound Scots, which in turn was worth 1/12 of a pound sterling.[115]
  13. ^ Muskerry changed sides on Ash Wednesday 1642.[152] Calculations with the Easter Calculator of the University of Utrecht or that of the IMCCE show that Ash Wednesday fell on 2 March in 1642.
  14. ^ Fermoy and Muskerry were both viscounts, but the Muskerry viscountcy had only been created in 1628,[171] whereas the Fermoy viscountcy was much older.[172]
  15. ^ The dates given for the sieges of Annagh and Liscarroll castles are confusing, but it is sure the sieges happened in the summer of 1642 and that Liscarrol fell on 2 September.[202][203][204]
  16. ^ Authors agree that Muskerry and Fermoy sat together in a Supreme Council in 1643. According to Cregan (1995) and Ó Siochrú (1997) this was the Second Supreme Council, May to November 1643,[219][220][221] but McGrath (1997) and Jane Ohlmeyer (2004) maintain it was the third, November 1643 to July 1644.[222][223]
  17. ^ The date of the surrender varies with authors and is either 10 or 18 May 1650.[405][406]
  18. ^ Lady Dowdall's narration is found in the 2nd volume of Gilbert's History (1882), which can be read in the original[443] or, more easily, in a version with modernised spelling.[444]
  19. ^ Some sources give the date, 3 June 1665 O.S. or 13 June 1665 N.S.,[79][80] which is that of the Battle of Lowestoft during the Second Anglo-Dutch War.[497] but do not name the battle. This seems to have led Ó Siochrú to call it the 'Battle of Solebay' in error.[498]


  1. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", Title: "MacCarthy, Donough"
  2. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107: "MacCarthy, Donough, first earl of Clancarty (1594–1665)"
  3. ^ a b Cokayne 1913, p. 214, line 18: "Donogh MacCarty, 2nd but 1st surv. s. [surviving son] and h. [heir] of Cormac Oge ..."
  4. ^ a b O'Hart 1892, p. 124, left column, line 41: "By his first marriage this Donoch had a son named Donall, who was known as the Buchail Bán (or the 'fair-haired boy')."
  5. ^ a b c House of Commons 1878, p. 609: "1639 / 2 Mar. / Sir Donagh McCarthy, knt. / – / Cork County"
  6. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, left column, line 20: "MacCarthy, Donough, first earl ..."
  7. ^ a b House of Commons 1878, p. 608: "1634 / 23 June / Sir Donough M'Carthy, knt. / – / ditto [Cork County]"
  8. ^ Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line 33: "The 2nd son, Donough M'Carty, was created Earl ..."
  9. ^ McGrath 1997a, p. 203, line 1: "Donough Mc Carthy (1594–1665) Cork County"
  10. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", 1st paragraph, 1st sentence: "MacCarthy, Donough (1594–1665), 2nd Viscount Muskerry ..."
  11. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, line 48: "... succeeded his father as second Viscount Muskerry."
  12. ^ a b Carte 1851a, p. 244: "... thought fit to delegate the lords Gormanston, Kilmallock, and Muskery to present their grievances to his majesty."
  13. ^ Castlehaven 1815, p. 64: "... to which rendevous my Lord of Muskry came ..."
  14. ^ a b French 1846, p. 88: "... he [Ormond] deceaved thye person most trusted in him ... I mean the Earle of Clancarty (then lord viscont Musgry) his brother in law, who seemed sore vexed in his dying bed for having placed trust in Ormond ..."
  15. ^ a b O'Hart 1892, p. 122, top: "Cormac MacCarty Mor, Prince of Desmond (see the MacCarty Mór Stem, No. 115,) had a second son, Dermod Mór, of Muscry (now Muskerry) who was the ancestor of MacCarthy, lords of Muscry and earls of Clan Carthy."
  16. ^ Wood 1935, p. 1: "The titles of the chief governors of Ireland have been various ... lieutenant of the king, lieutenant general and general governor, deputy or lord deputy, justiciar or lord justice ..."
  17. ^ Cokayne 1896, p. 263, line 6: "Viceroy of Ireland, as L. [Lord] Deputy and (1640) L. Lieut. [Lieutenant], 1632/33–1641."
  18. ^ Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line 71: "Arg. [argent], a stag, trippant, gu. [gules], attired and unguled [hoofs], or"
  19. ^
  20. ^ a b Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line 25: "I. Cormac, d. [died] young."
  21. ^ Lainé 1836, p. 74: "XVIII. Cormac-Ogue Mac-Carthy, créé baron de Blarney et vicomte de Muskery ..."
  22. ^ Lodge 1789a, p. 36: "... an only daughter Margaret married to Cormac [Oge], son and heir to the Lord Muskerry, and was mother to Donogh first Earl of Clancarthy."
  23. ^ McCarthy 1913, p. 70, line 7: "He [the 1st Viscount] had previously [before becoming Viscount] been known as 'Sir Charles MacCarthy'."
  24. ^ Lainé 1836, pp. 72–79.
  25. ^ O'Hart 1892, p. 123, right column, line 16: "123. Cormac Mór, lord of Muscry ... born, A.D. 1552; married to Maria Butler."
  26. ^ a b c Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, left column, line 24: "With the death of his elder brother Cormac, Donough became heir to vast estates in Munster."
  27. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", 1st paragraph, 2nd sentence: "Although his family were catholics of native Irish stock, their long tradition of loyal service to the English crown had enabled them to retain extensive lands in Co. Cork."
  28. ^ Gibson 1861a, p. 84, line 9: "There were at this time four distinct chieftainships of the Mac Carthys; the Mac Carthys Mor, or lords of Desmond, and their off-shoots, namely, the Mac Carthys Reagh of Carbery, the Donough Mac Carthys of Duhallow, and the Mac Carthys of Muskerry."
  29. ^ O'Hart 1892, p. 122, left column: "116. Dermod Mór: son of Cormac Mór, Prince of Desmond; b. 1310; created by the English in A.D. 1353, 'Lord of Muskerry' ..."
  30. ^ O'Hart 1892, p. 112, right column: "115. Cormac MacCarthy Mór, Prince of Desmond: his son; b. 1271; d. 1359."
  31. ^ Lainé 1836, p. 72: "Dermod-Môr, Mac-Carthy, fils puiné de Cormac-Môr, prince de Desmond et d'Honoria Fitz-Maurice, eut en apanage la baronnie de Muskery ..."
  32. ^ Burke 1866, p. 406, left column: "Donough O'Brien, 4th Earl of Thomond, and lord-president of Munster, called "the great earl", m. [married] 1st Ellen, dau. [daughter] of Maurice, Lord Viscount Roche of Fermoy, and had a dau., Margaret, m. to Charles McCarthy, 1st Viscount Muskerry."
  33. ^ O'Hart 1892, pp. 122–124: 116 Dermod Mor, 117 Cormac, 118 Teige, 119 Cormac Laidir, 120 Cormac Oge, 121 Teige, 122 Dermod, 123 Cormac Moe, 124 Cormac Oge (1st Viscount Muskerry)
  34. ^ Hanks & Hodges 1990, p. 87: "Donagh (m.) Irish: Anglicised form of the Gaelic name Donnchadh, see Duncan. Variants: Dono(u)gh."
  35. ^ Cokayne 1896, p. 391, note b: "They were descended from the celebrated Brien Boroihme, principal king of Ireland (1002–1004) through his grandson Turlogh ..."
  36. ^ Cokayne 1893, p. 425, line 32: "He [Charles MacCarty] m. [married] firstly, about 1590, Margaret, da. [daughter] of Donough (O'Brien), 4th Earl of Thomond ..."
  37. ^ a b Cokayne 1893, p. 425, footnote: "Donogh was the 2nd son, but his elder br. [brother], Cormac, is said to have d. [died] young, tho' he might be living (possibly an idiot) at this time."
  38. ^ Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line 26aMary, Eleanor, and Eleanor (sic)
  39. ^ Lainé 1836, p. 75, line 5Mary, Ellen, and Eleanor
  40. ^ Lodge 1789b, p. 55, line 29: "He married Mary second daughter of Cormac, Lord Muskerry ... sister to his father's second wife."
  41. ^ Lodge 1789a, p. 197: "Colonel Edmond Fitz-Maurice, who married Ellena, fifth daughter of Charles, Lord Viscount Muskerry."
  42. ^ Gillman 1892, fold-out.
  43. ^ Butler 1925, p. 255, Note 8The following rough pedigree ...
  44. ^ Burke 1866, p. 344, left columnGenealogy of the earls of Clancarty
  45. ^ Cokayne 1913, pp. 214–217Genealogy of the earls of Clancarty
  46. ^ Lainé 1836, pp. 74–78Genealogy of the MacCarthy of Muskerry family
  47. ^ Burke 1866, pp. 405–406Genealogy of the earls of Thomond
  48. ^ Cokayne 1896, pp. 391–395Genealogy of the earls of Thomond
  49. ^ Burke & Burke 1909, p. 1400Genealogy of the earls of Ormond
  50. ^ Cusack 1871, p. 265: "But Dr. Browne [the Anglican bishop] soon found out that it was incomparably easier for Henry to issue commands in England than for him to enforce them in Ireland."
  51. ^ Duffy 2002, p. 107, line 10: "... the number of protestants in Ireland remained small throughout her [Elizabeth's] reign ..."
  52. ^ McCarthy 1913, p. 66: "Cormac MacDermott, 16th Lord, born in 1552, attended Parliament in 1578 as "Baron of Blarney", and conformed to the Protestant church."
  53. ^ Cunningham, "O'Brien, Donough", 2nd paragraph, 1st sentence: "Donough O'Brien was brought up as a protestant at the court of Queen Elizabeth."
  54. ^ McGurk 2004a, p. 360, right column, line 32: "He was educated at Elizabeth's court and described as 'as truly English as if he had been born in Middlesex.'. "
  55. ^ McGurk 2004a, p. 361, right column: "In the 1613 parliament he [Thomond] strongly supported the protestant party ..."
  56. ^ O'Hart 1892, p. 124, left column, line 10: "This Cormac was educated at Oxford (England), ..."
  57. ^ Hunter-Blair 1913, p. 366, left column: "... imposed upon the university the royal Supremacy and the Thirty-nine Articles, subscription to which was required from every student ..."
  58. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, left column, line 21: "... [Donough] was the second son of the staunchly Catholic Charles MacCarthy ..."
  59. ^ Lenihan 2008, p. 70: "... the reversion of Cormac MacDermod MacCarthy's son Cormac Óg (1st Viscount Muskerry) to Catholicism ..."
  60. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, left column, line 31: "Donough's mother died in or before 1599 when his father married as his second wife Ellen (d. [died] in or after 1610), widow of Donnell MacCarthy Reagh and daughter of David Roch, seventh Viscount Fermoy."
  61. ^ Cokayne 1893, p. 425, line 31: "He [Charles MacCarty] m. [married] secondly, Ellen widow of Donnell MacCarthy Reagh, da. [daughter] of David (Roche), Viscount Fermoy ..."
  62. ^ Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line 21: "... [married] 2ndly the Hon. [honourable] Helen Roche, dau. [daughter] of David, Viscount Fermoy."
  63. ^ Lainé 1836, p. 75, top: lists the children of "Cormac Ogue" from his first marriage, but does not mention his 2nd marriage or any other children."
  64. ^ Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, middle: Burke (1866) mentions his second marriage and lists five children, but all five are from the first marriage.
  65. ^ Ó Siochrú, "Roche, David", 2nd paragraph, 3rd sentence: "He [David Roche] provided protection and support for catholic clergy in the province ..."
  66. ^ Dunlop & Cunningham 2004, p. 460, left column, line 53: "... [David Roche] though a zealous Catholic ..."
  67. ^ Dunlop & Cunningham 2004, p. 460, left column, line 47: "Roche [David] was loyal to the government."
  68. ^ Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line : "Sir Cormac MacCarthy, of Blarney, called Cooch or Blind, Lord of Muskerry, who m. [married] 1st Mary, dau. [daughter] of Sir Theobald Butler, Knt., Lord of Cahir, and by her left at his decease, 23 February, 1616, two sons ..."
  69. ^ McCarthy 1913, p. 70, line 4: "Cormac, the 17th Lord of Muskerry (born 1564, died 1640),"
  70. ^ O'Hart 1892, p. 124, left column, line 5: "124. Cormac Oge, 17th lord of Muscry: his son; born A.D. 1564;"
  71. ^ Gillespie 2006, p. 13, line 17: "... most drastically in the period from 1615 to 1628 when honours were freely available for sale."
  72. ^ Cokayne 1893, p. 425, line 29: "... suc. [succeeded] his father 23 Feb. 1616 and was cr. [created] 15 Nov. 1628, Baron Blarney and Viscount Muskerry, both of co. Cork [I. [Ireland] ], for life, with rem. [remainder] to his son Donough and the heirs male of his body ..."
  73. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", 1st paragraph, 4th sentence: "His marriage to Eleanor Butler, sister of James ..."
  74. ^ a b Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, left column, line 35: "... Donough MacCarthy had married by 1641 Eleanor (or Ellen; 1612–1682), the eldest daughter of Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles, and sister of James, later Duke of Ormond."
  75. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 215, line 4: "He [Donough MacCarty] m. [married], before 1648, Eleanor, sister of James, 1st Duke of Ormonde, da. [daughter] of Thomas Butler styled Viscount Thurles, by Elizabeth da. of Sir John Pointz."
  76. ^ Burke & Burke 1909, p. 1400, left column: "1. Helena, m. [married] Donough MacCarty, 1st Earl of Clancarty."
  77. ^ a b Lodge 1789b, p. 39, line 33: "Daughter Ellen, married to Donogh, Earl of Clancarthy, and dying in April 1682, AEt. 70, was buried 24 in the Chancel of St. Michan's church."
  78. ^ Lodge 1789b, p. 40, line 16: "Eleanor, married to Sir Andrew Aylmer, of Donadea in the county of Kildare, Baronet."
  79. ^ a b c Cokayne 1913, p. 215, line 13: "He [Charles (Cormac)] d. v.p. [predeceased his father] being slain on board 'the Royal Charles' in a sea-fight against the Dutch, 3, and was bur. [buried] 22 June 1665 in Westm. [Westminster] Abbey."
  80. ^ a b c Lainé 1836, p. 76, line 1: "... dans un combat naval livré aux Hollandais, le 13 juin 1665 [N.S.] à l'âge de trente-et-un ans."
  81. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 214, right column, line 37NB: only one marriage recorded.
  82. ^ Burke 1866, p. 344: NB: only one marriage recorded.
  83. ^ Lainé 1836, p. 75NB: only one marriage recorded.
  84. ^ Burke & Burke 1909, p. 1400, right column, line 9: "The earl d. [died] 24 Feb. 1632 and was s. [succeeded] by his grandson James 1st Duke of Ormonde ..."
  85. ^ a b Cregan 1995, p. 502: "... while others of the great Anglo-Irish and Old Irish peers, as Kildare, Ormond, Thomond, Barrymore, Inchiquin and Howth, were now to be found in the Protestant ranks."
  86. ^ Lodge 1789b, p. 43, line 28: "He [James Butler] was granted in Ward 26 May 1623 to Richard, Earl of Desmond, and by order of K. James I educated under the eye of Doctor George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury ..."
  87. ^ a b Burke 1866, p. 344, right column: Lists children as Charles, Callaghan, Justin, Helen, and Margaret.
  88. ^ Firth 1903, p. 71, line 1: "... lieutenant-colonel was Charles (or Cormac) MacCarty, eldest son of Lord Muskerry. Muskerry commanded an Irish regiment in French service which ... formed part of the garrison of Condé."
  89. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 216, line 12: "He [Callaghan] d. [died] 21 Nov. 1676."
  90. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 216, line 6: "Callaghan (MacCarty) Earl of Clancarty etc [I. [Ireland] ], uncle and h. [heir], being 2nd s. [son] of the 1st Earl."
  91. ^ Murphy 1959, p. 49: "I have been unable to determine the precise date of his [Justin's] birth: the year 1643 is an approximation arrived at ..."
  92. ^ Wauchope 2004, p. 111, left column: "c. 1643 – 1694"
  93. ^ Cokayne 1893, p. 390: "The Hon. Justin MacCarty 3d and yst [youngest] s. [son] of Donough, 1st Earl of Clancarty [I. [Ireland] ] by Eleanor, sister of James Duke of Ormonde ..."
  94. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 232, line 8: "Her will, dat. 6 Aug. 1720, pr. [proved] 29 June 1722."
  95. ^ Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line 45: "Helena m. [married] William, 7th Earl of Clanricarde."
  96. ^ a b Cokayne 1913, p. 233, line 2: "He [William] m. [married] 2ndly Helen, widow of sir John FitzGerald, of Dromana, co. Waterford (who d. [died] 1662), da. [daughter] of Donough (MacCarty), 1st Earl of Clancarty [I. [Ireland] ] by Eleanor ..."
  97. ^ Cokayne 1926, p. 386, line 26: "He [Luke Plunkett] m. [married], before 1666, Margaret, da. [daughter] of Donough (MacCarty) Earl of Clancarty [I. [Ireland] ], by Eleanor, sister of James (Butler) 1st Duke of Ormonde, and da. of Thomas Butler, styled Viscount Thurles. ... His widow d. [died] 1 Jan. 1703/4 and was buried in the chapel of Somerset House."
  98. ^ Harris 1930, p. 1193, left column, line 60: "k. [knight] of the shire, in England, one of the representatives of a shire or county in Parliament, in distinction from the representatives of cities and boroughs."
  99. ^ Hey 1996, p. 256, left column, line 40: "Knight of the shire ... The term survived from the Middle Ages into the 19th century, though by then county MPs rarely held a knighthood."
  100. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", Middle of the 1st paragraph: "Knighted the following year [1634] ..."
  101. ^ Asch 2004, p. 146, right column, line 23: "Wentworth was appointed lord deputy on 12 January 1632 ..."
  102. ^ Cokayne 1896, p. 262: "... was cr. [created] 2 Jan. 1639–40 ... Earl of Strafford ..."
  103. ^ Cusack 1871, p. 307, penultimate line: "... six subsidies of 50,000ℓ each were voted ..."
  104. ^ a b c d e f g UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  105. ^ Wedgwood 1961, p. 152: "... voted six subsidies unanimously ..."
  106. ^ Kearney 1959, p. 54: "The fact that the subsidies were voted unanimously on 19 July [1634] ..."
  107. ^ Wedgwood 1961, p. 156, line 1: "... Wentworth agreed that ten only [of the Graces] should become statute law, and that all the rest, with the exception of two, should be continued at the discretion of the government. The two exceptions, articles 24 and 25, affecting land tenure ..."
  108. ^ Gillespie 2006, p. 76: "The deputation had its first formal audience with the king on 28 March 1628 ..."
  109. ^ Gillespie 2006, p. 77, line 3:"Their [the graces'] price was fixed at £40,000 sterling each year for three years "
  110. ^ House of Commons 1878, p. 604, 6th table row: "1639 / 16 March / 1648 / 30 January"
  111. ^ Fryde et al. 1986, p. 44, line 17: "Charles I. ... exec. 30 Jan. 1649 ..."
  112. ^ Gerard 1913, p. 739, right column: "[The year began]... from 1155 till the reform of the calendar in 1752 on 25 March, so that 24 March was the last day ..."
  113. ^ Cokayne 1902, p. 441, line 25: "MacCarty: cr. [created] about 1638;"
  114. ^ Round 1911, p. 423: "... paid 3000 marks (£166 13s. 4d.) towards the plantation of the colony."
  115. ^ Gibson & Smout 1995, p. xv: "After 1603, however, the pound scots was fixed at one-twelfth of the pound sterling."
  116. ^ Wedgwood 1961, p. 276, line 4: "... they voted four subsidies of £45,000 each without a single negative ..."
  117. ^ Wedgwood 1961, p. 277, line 8: "The Irish Parliament had agreed on the provision of a force of eight thousand foot and a thousand horse."
  118. ^ Harris 2014, p. 431: "... army of 9,000 that Wentworth had raised in Ireland to help suppress the Scots. "
  119. ^ Wedgwood 1961, p. 278: "On the evening of Good Friday, April 3rd, he [Wentworth] took leave of his wife and his friend, Wandesford, not knowing ..."
  120. ^ Asch 2004, p. 152, right column, line 44: "... Strafford immediately returned to England where the Short Parliament assembled on 15 April."
  121. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, left column, line 45: "In the parliaments of 1634 and 1640 MacCarthy sat as MP for co. Cork and served as member of the committee which presented grievances to Charles I in 1640."
  122. ^ Perceval-Maxwell 1994, p. 90, line 13: "All the members of this commission signed the November Petition."
  123. ^ Wedgwood 1961, p. 320: "Poor Christopher Wandesford, as Lord Deputy, exerted no control at all; he had managed to prorogue the house, but not until after the remonstrance had been voted."
  124. ^ Woolrych 2002, p. 163, line 36: "They sent it over to England ... in the charge of thirteen members, who spanned the whole gamut from Irish and Old-English Catholics to New English puritans and Scottish Presbyterians. They included Sir Donagh McCarthy ..."
  125. ^ Wedgwood 1961, p. 320, line 16: "On November 21st Audley Mervyn ... appeared with a remonstrance from Dublin."
  126. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", Penultimate sentence of the 1st paragraph: "In December 1640 MacCarthy travelled to London as a member of a commons committee to present a list of grievances to the king."
  127. ^ Bagwell 1909a, p. 303: "... deputed Gormanston, Dillon, and Kilmallock to carry their grievances to London. When Parliament reassembled [i.e. 26 Jan 1641] this action was confirmed and Lord Muskerry was added to the number."
  128. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", 2nd paragraph, 1st sentence start: "On the death of his father (20 February 1641) ..."
  129. ^ a b Lainé 1836, p. 77: "(extrait du certificat de funérailles) ... enterré dans le bas-côté [de Westminster] près de son grand-père Charles, lord vicomte Muskery."
  130. ^ McGrath 1997b, p. 257: "Redmond replaced his nephew by marriage McCarthy."
  131. ^ Wedgwood 1978, p. 332: "... the opening date was fixed for Monday, March 22nd, 1641 ..."
  132. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", 1st paragraph, last sentence: "He gave evidence at Strafford's trial, accusing the lord lieutenant of refusing travel licences to Irishmen who wished to visit the court."
  133. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", 2nd paragraph, 1st sentence: "... returned to Dublin to sit in the house of lords as 2nd Viscount Muskerry."
  134. ^ Dorney, John (10 January 2014). "The Eleven Years War 1641-52 – A Brief Overview". The Irish Story. Retrieved 6 October 2021. The one term that unifies them is the contemporary Irish language term Cogadh na haon deag mbliana or the Eleven Years War.
  135. ^ Lenihan 1997, p. 1, line 1: "... the Eleven Year War (1641–1652) ..."
  136. ^ Morrill 1991, p. 8: "Yet there never has been any agreement amongst historians about what to call the crisis in England in the 1640s. Contemporaries in England saw it as 'The Troubles' or 'The Great Civil War'" or as the 'Great Rebellion'; while contemporaries in Scotland saw it as the 'Wars of the Covenant' and contemporaries in Ireland as the 'War of the Three Kingdoms'.
  137. ^ Ó Siochrú 2007, p. title:The title demonstrates the use of the term
  138. ^ Pocock 1996, p. 172: "Irish historians ... object, or so I have been told, to the term 'the British Isles' for reasons with which I can sympathise."
  139. ^ Duffy 2002, p. 112, line 22: "Besides, the threat of civil war in England presented the best opportunity in a generation for an attempt to overthrow English rule ..."
  140. ^ Duffy 2002, p. 113, line 6: "... there can be little doubt that the recovery of lost lands was part of their agenda."
  141. ^ Perceval-Maxwell 1994, p. 214: "Sir Phelim O'Neill struck in Ulster on the evening of Friday, 22 October [1641], 'the last day of the moon'. He took Dungannon first, and two hours later he was in the possession of the strong castle of Charlemont ..."
  142. ^ Boyce 1995, p. 79: "Their aims were clearly stated in Sir Phelim O'Neill's proclamation, made at Dungannon on 24 October 1641."
  143. ^ Hickson 1884, p. 114, line 40Text of the commission
  144. ^ Budgell 2003, p. 22, line 4: "... at Castlelyons where the Earl of Barrymore, his [Broghill's] brother-in-law had invited them [Broghill and Cork] both to dine. The Lord Muskerry and some other men of quality of the Irish Nation, with whom they lived in an easy and familiar way, were of the party."
  145. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", 2nd paragraph: "During the initial months of the uprising in 1641, Muskerry remained loyal to the Dublin administration but most of his tenants and adherents defected to the rebel cause."
  146. ^ Carte 1851b, p. 148, line 17: "It was the middle of December before any one gentleman in the province of Munster appeared to favour the rebellion; many of them had shewn themselves zealous to oppose it and had tendered their service for that end. Lord Muskerry, who had married a sister of the Lord Ormond's, offered to raise a 1000 men at his own charge ..."
  147. ^ Borlase & Hyde 1680, p. 115: "... killed going from Macrone to Cork (with a Convoy which the Lord Muskerry did allow her) ..."
  148. ^ Hill 1873, p. 71, left column, footnote 81: "... lord and lady Muskerry devoted their time, and energies, and worldly means to the work of preserving Protestants, and relieving them in great numbers from cold and hunger."
  149. ^ Hickson 1884, p. 175, line 1: "But, staunch and devout Roman Catholic as he [Donough MacCarthy] was, he refused to sanction the extermination of his Protestant countrymen ..."
  150. ^ Townshend 1904, pp. 100–102.
  151. ^ Moody & Martin 2001, p. 160: "In the early months of 1642 the movement spread throughout Ireland and success seemed near."
  152. ^ McGrath 1997a, p. 203, line 20: "He declared for his co-religionists on Ash Wednesday 1642 ..."
  153. ^ M'Enery 1904, p. 172: "Lord Muskerry joined the insurgents early in March [1642]."
  154. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, right column, line 2: "on the grounds that the rebellion was the only means of preserving Catholicism, the king's prerogative and the 'antient privileges of the poore Kingdom of Ireland ...' "
  155. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", 2nd paragraph, middle: "... [Muskerry] claimed that he had joined the rebellion to maintain the 'Catholic religion, his majesty's prerogative ...'"
  156. ^ Ó Siochrú 1997, p. 63, note 32: "... Muskerry explained his motivations in a letter to the earl of Barrymore on 17 March 1642."
  157. ^ Wedgwood 1978, p. 55, line 2: "First [on 1 January 1642] he issued a proclamation denouncing the Irish as traitors ..."
  158. ^ Wedgwood 1978, p. 26, line 14: "Their leaders—Phelim O'Neil and Rory M'Guire in the North, Lord Muskerry in the South—persistently claimed that they had the royal warrant for what they did."
  159. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 12, line 14: "... 2,500,000 acres were declared forfeited to the crown, by the men engaged in the rebellion."
  160. ^ Seccombe 1893, p. 437, left column, line 2: "He [the 2nd Viscount Muskerry] forfeited all his estates in 1641 [i.e. March 1641/42] ..."
  161. ^ Mahaffy 1891, p. 44: "There were several sites granted on the north side of Dame Street, by the Corporation [i.e. Trinity College] to gentlemen of quality, who built houses with gardens stretching behind them to the river. I found mention of three of these before 1640. Presently, two larger mansions were erected there—Clancarty House, at the foot of the present S. Andrew's Street, and opposite it Chichester House ..."
  162. ^ Duffy 2002, p. 112, line 19: "... by the early months of 1642 only a few pockets of loyalism remained, principally defended towns and forts, many under siege."
  163. ^ Woolrych 2002, p. 218: "the Irish rebellion did reach its largest territorial extent during January and February. Its partisans secured Waterford, Tipperary, Kilkenny during January; the Earl of Thomond tried in vain to prevent County Clare from joining them and when Viscount Muskerry declared for them in February, most of County Cork was lost."
  164. ^ Foster 1989, p. 120: "The recent example of the Scottish covenanters and their success in achieving a special recognition for a Presbyterian church in Scotland ..."
  165. ^ Clavin 2004, p. 659, right column: "... St Leger responded in a ruthless and brutal fashion ... indiscriminately killing many local Catholics ..."
  166. ^ Butler 1925, p. 254, line 3: "But soon, goaded to action it would appear by the atrocities of St. Leger and the Protestant settlers, he [Muskerry] threw in his lot with his countrymen."
  167. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 2, line 13: "At the end of January Mountgarrett, who acted as general, invaded Munster "
  168. ^ Kelsey 2004, p. 197, left column, bottom: "Mountgarret now headed south and took Mallow before an argument with Lord Roche and the rebels of co. Cork, one of the earliest signs of tensions within the confederate camp ..."
  169. ^ Cokayne 1890, p. 328: "8. Maurice (Roche) Viscount Roche of Fermoy [I. [Ireland] ], s. and h. [son and heir], took his seat (by proxy) in the House of Lords [I. [Ireland] ], 26 Oct. 1640. He was deeply involved in the troubles of 1641 ..."
  170. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", 2nd paragraph, 4th sentence: "His personal rivalry with Maurice Roche, Viscount Fermoy, another leading catholic magnate in Munster, hindered the progress of the catholic forces in the province."
  171. ^ Cokayne 1893, p. 425, line 26: "... was cr. [created] 15 Nov. 1628, Baron Blarney and Viscount Muskerry, both of co. Cork [I. [Ireland] ], for life, with rem. [remainder] to his son Donough and the heirs male of his body ..."
  172. ^ Burke 1866, p. 454, right column, bottom: "Maurice Roche, Viscount Fermoy, generally called the Mad, living in 1541 ..."
  173. ^ O Callaghan 1990, p. 32, right column: "... his annual revenue amounted to £7,000 and he had inherited £30,000. In contrast Roche, Mac Donough, O Callaghan, and O Keeffe were so deeply into debt that their revenues served only to meet their interest payments."
  174. ^ Wiggins 2001, p. xvi: "March 1642 / 2nd / At a meeting in Muskerry's house in Blarney, Co. Cork, the leadership question is resolved when Garrett Barry is appointed general, with the other notables forming a council of war."
  175. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, right column, line 7: "Muskerry, working closely with Colonel Garret Barry, a veteran from the Spanish service in Flanders, now led the Catholic war effort in Munster."
  176. ^ McGrath 1997c, p. 266, line 6: "In April 1642 he [St Leger] was besieged in Cork by Theobald Purcell, Richard Butler, and Lords Roche, Ikerrin, Dunboyne and Muskerry."
  177. ^ Bagwell 1895, p. 320, right column, line 52: "In April 1642, during the siege of Cork by Muskerry with four thousand men, Inchiquin ..."
  178. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 3: "... besieged in Cork 'by a vast body of enemy lying within four miles of the town, under my Lord of Muskerry, O'Sullivan Roe, MacCarthy Reagh, and all the western gentry ...' "
  179. ^ Gilbert 1882a, p. 73: "... to debarre, if it were possible the succours ... out of England from having for their descent soe good a harbour and so convenient a receptacle as the citty of Corke ..."
  180. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, right column, line 13: "... early in April 1642 captured Rochfordstown ..."
  181. ^ Wiggins 2001, p. xvii: "April 1642 / 13th / The siege of Cork is lifted when Lord Inchiquin routes the besiegers."
  182. ^ Smith 1893, p. 74: "... took all their equipages and carriages, of which Lord Muskery's armour, tent, and trunks were part."
  183. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, right column: "On 16 May Muskerry and Lord Roche captured and then pillaged Castle Lyons (though Barrymore was allowed to escape unharmed)."
  184. ^ Smith 1893, p. 76: "On the 2nd July, 1642, the Lord President, St Leger, died at his house in Doneraile."
  185. ^ Smith 1893, p. 77: "The Lords justices, upon his death, made choice of Lord Inchiquin to succeed him [St. Leger], who had married his daughter ..."
  186. ^ Little 2004a, p. 374, left column, line 27: "On 2 April, in a further sign of St Leger's trust, Inchiquin was made vice-president of Munster."
  187. ^ M'Enery 1904, p. 163, penultimate line: "The principal men among the besiegers were General Gerald Barry, Patrick Pursell of Croagh, County Limerick, lord Roche, lord Muskerry ..."
  188. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 28, line 11: "The inhabitants ... opened their gates to the confederates ..."
  189. ^ M'Enery 1904, p. 163, line 31: "The castle was defended by Captain George Courtenay, a younger son of Sir William Courtenay, head of the famous house of Courtenay, Earls of Devon;"
  190. ^ Wiggins 2001, p. 55: "... Sir Maurice Berkeley was the constable of Limerick Castle until 1622, when he was succeeded by George Courtenay."
  191. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 28, line 29: "Muskerry ordered a cannon to be mounted on St. Mary's church, from which he kept up an incessant fire on the castle;"
  192. ^ Wiggins 2001, p. 1: "The castle had been brought to the brink of surrender by the invisible and inexorable power of deep gallery mining."
  193. ^ Adams 1904, p. 255: "... capitulated on the 21st of June [1642]. Lord Muskerry took possession the next day."
  194. ^ Westropp 1907, p. 155: "The English settlers were given possession of the castles, and Connello was divided into seignories, mainly held by Berkeley, Courtenay, Oughtred, Trenchard, Cullom, Billingsley and Agar."
  195. ^ Wiggins 2001, p. xvii, line 9: "[March 1642] / 26th / Castletown Castle, Co. Limerick, besieged by Patrick Purcell, and taken after five weeks."
  196. ^ Firth 1899, p. 128, left column: "In the conquest of Ireland he [Waller] took a prominent part, following Cromwell thither with his regiment in December 1649."
  197. ^ Little 2004c, p. 978, left column: "... by June 1650 he [Waller] had been promoted major-general."
  198. ^ Murphy 2012b, p. 142: "Eventually a shortage of water forced Waller to yield the castle [i.e. Castletown] about six weeks later on either 4 or 13 May 1642."
  199. ^ a b Westropp 1907, p. 163: "Purcell came up with seven thousand men and three of its cannon, and fired on the castle. Defence was impossible; the indomitable woman, after enduring 'three great shot', surrendered ..."
  200. ^ Coolahan, "Dowdall, Elizabeth", Title: "Elizabeth married Sir John Dowdall, of Kilfinny, Limerick."
  201. ^ Lodge 1789c, p. 16: "Sir John Dowdall of Kilfinny ... left five daughters, viz Anne ... Elizabeth [married] before 1630 to Hardress Waller of Castleton in the county of Limerick, Knt.;"
  202. ^ Buckley 1898, p. 88: "On Tuesday, the 30th August, they sat down before Liscarroll Castle ..."
  203. ^ Moriarty 1895, p. 373, right column: "In the summer of 1642 a detachment of the confederate army under Lord Muskerry advanced into Percival's districts. All his castles were taken though Annagh and Liscarrol offered a stubborn resistance, the former [sic] holding out for eleven days against an attacking force of 7,500 men (20 Aug.–2 Sept. 1642)."
  204. ^ Little 2004b, p. 662, left column: "Perceval's lands were overrun, with his castles at Liscarroll and Annagh holding out until September 1642."
  205. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 107, line 14: "Inchiquin hurried to the relief of Liscarroll, arriving in sight of the castle on September 3rd."
  206. ^ Bagwell 1895, p. 321, left column, line 14: "On 20 August Inchiquin, accompanied by Barrymore, Kinalmeaky, and Broghill ... with only two thousand foot and four hundred horse ..."
  207. ^ Ohlmeyer 2012, p. 266: "... at the battle of Liscarroll (3 September 1642) when troops led by Lords Brittas, Castle Connell, Dunboyne, Ikerrin, Muskerry, and Roche took on a Protestant force ..."
  208. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 35: "... the confederates under Lords Roche, Muskerry, Ikerrin, Dunboyne, Castleconnell, Brittas, and General Barry ..."
  209. ^ Buckley 1898, p. 98: "My Lord Musgrave told them the day was lost, and bid as many as could save their lives, to make hast away;"
  210. ^ Armstrong, "Barry, David Fitz-David", 2nd paragraph, penultimate sentence: "He died 29 September 1642 apparently from wounds received in battle at Liscarrol ..."
  211. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 20, line 4: "... the general synod met at Kilkenny on the 10th May 1642."
  212. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 21, line 1: "... drew up an oath of association which was to be taken by all Catholics ...
  213. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", Penultimate sentence of the 2nd paragraph: "... Muskerry attended the first general assembly of the confederate catholics in Kilkenny in October 1642."
  214. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 42: "On the 24th of October [1642] therefore twenty-five peers,—eleven spiritual, fourteen temporal,—and two hundred and twenty-six commoners had met within the walls of Kilkenny ..."
  215. ^ Cusack 1871, p. 312: "For Munster: viscount Roche, Sir Daniel O'Brien, Edmund Fitzmaurice, Dr Fennell, Robert Lambert, and George Comyn."
  216. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 45, line 21: "they proceeded to elect the supreme council ... when Lord Mountgaret was chosen president."
  217. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", Last sentence of 2nd paragraph: "... appointed Garret Barry, a continental veteran, as compromise commander in Munster ..."
  218. ^ Lenihan 2004, p. 131, left column: "Barry died in Limerick City in early March 1646."
  219. ^ Cregan 1995, p. 510 middle: "Second Supreme Council, May 1643 – November 1643 ... Viscount Roche ... Viscount Muskerry ..."
  220. ^ Ó Siochrú 1997, p. 63, line 18: "... he [Muskerry] definitively attended the meeting the following May [1643], where assembly members elected him onto the Supreme Council ..."
  221. ^ Ó Siochrú 1997, p. 316, Table 11, Supreme Council Membership 1642-16.
  222. ^ a b McGrath 1997a, p. 203, line 25: "A member of the third, fourth, fifth and eighth Supreme Councils (1643–6, 1647) ..."
  223. ^ a b c d Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, right column, line 21: "At the national level he sat as a member of the third, fourth, fifth, and eighth supreme councils ..."
  224. ^ Borlase & Hyde 1680, p. 117: "... a mischief they [the English] might have avoided had they been less confident, and given greater credence to their Intelligence. The 4th of June ..."
  225. ^ Castlehaven 1815, p. 40, last line: "I lost no time in the charge, and quickly defeated his horse, who, to save themselves, broke in on the foot, and put them into disorder ..."
  226. ^ Carte 1851b, p. 484, line : "... attacked in his march at Killworth by the earl of Castlehaven and lord Muskery."
  227. ^ Carte 1851b, p. 484, line 16: "Sir Charles ... on June 3 had the strong castle of Cloughleagh surrendered to him."
  228. ^ Castlehaven 1815, p. 40, line 21: "The foot marched after but the old General moved so slowly, that I had defeated the enemy before he came within two miles of the place."
  229. ^ Bagwell 1895, p. 321, right column, line 7: "Muskerry threatened the county of Waterford ..."
  230. ^ Adams 1904, p. 283: "In 1643 it [Lismore] was again besieged by Lieutenant-Colonel Purcell with seven thousand foot and nine hundred horse ..."
  231. ^ Bagwell 1895, p. 321, right column, line 10: "The Irish leader offered to spare Youghal and its district if Cappoquin and Lismore surrendered at once "
  232. ^ a b Airy 1886, p. 54, right column: "... and the cessation was signed on the 15 September [1643]."
  233. ^ Moody & Martin 2001, p. 161, line 27: "On the one hand were the Old English who had little to gain and much to lose and who were prepared to agree upon moderate term with Charles."
  234. ^ Duffy 2002, p. 114, line 7: "... Charles I sought to make peace with the Confederates in order to free up the forces of the Dublin government for service against his Parliamentary opponents in England."
  235. ^ Barnard 2004b, p. 156, left column, line 17: "To his end, Ormond and other royal emissionaries were empowered to conclude truces with the Irish insurgents."
  236. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 73: "... the confederate commissioners agreed to meet him in Strafford's unfinished mansion at Jigginstown, in order to a cessation of arms."
  237. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 50: "Ten persons signed on the part of the Confederates, of whom Lord Muskerry, Sir Robert Talbot, and Geoffrey Browne were perhaps the most notable."
  238. ^ Gilbert 1882a, p. 163, note 1: "James, Marquess of Ormonde, Lieutenant-General of his Majestie's army in the kingdom of Ireland of the one part, and Donogh, Viscount Muskery; Sir Lucas Dillon, Knight; Nicholas Plunket, Esquire; Sir Robert Talbot, Baronet; Torlogh O'Neill; Geffry Browne; Ever Mac Gennis, and John Walshe, Esquires: Authorized by his Majestie's Roamn Catholic subjects, of the other part."
  239. ^ Carte 1851c, p. 263: "... the thirty thousand pounds which by the articles of the cessation was to be paid, half in money and the rest in beeves and ammunition."
  240. ^ Woolrych 2002, p. 273: "Ormond's fellow protestant commanders such as Thomond and Inchiquin and Coote had misgivings about his treating with the Confederates, but in accordance with the king's instructions ..."
  241. ^ Gilbert 1882b, p. 365–376.
  242. ^ Gilbert 1882b, p. 371, line 25: "Except Knockmorne, Ardmore, Piltdown, Cappoquin, Ballinetra, Stroncally, Lismore ..."
  243. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 64, line 19: "The persons chosen were Lord Muskerry, Antrim's brother Alexander Macdonnell, Sir Robert Talbot, Nicholas Plunkett, Dermot O'Brien, Geoffrey Browne, and Richard Martin."
  244. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 99: "... Muskerry, MacDonnell, Plunket, Sir Robert Talbot, Dermid O'Brien, Richard Martin, and Severinus Browne, formed the deputation, which reached Oxford at the beginning of April, when they laid before his majesty a statement of grievances ..."
  245. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 64, line 23: "The Lords Justices granted them with a safe-conduct in January ..."
  246. ^ Barnard 2004b, p. 156, left column: "Ormond was rewarded by being named by the king as lord lieutenant, and was sworn on 21 January 1644."
  247. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 64, line 26: "They landed in Cornwall and reached Oxford on March 24 [1644]."
  248. ^ Gardiner 1886, p. 393: "... Muskerry, the principal personage among the Irish agents ..."
  249. ^ Gardiner 1886, p. 392: "... asked for complete liberty for the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland, and for complete independence of the Irish parliament."
  250. ^ Corish 1976a, p. 311, line 18: "An act of oblivion for all offences committed ..."
  251. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 100, line 15: "An earldom was offered to Muskerry, which he declined ..."
  252. ^ Corish 1976a, p. 311, line 9: "When this Protestant delegation arrived in Oxford on 17 April [1644] ..."
  253. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 64, line 27: "As soon as it was known in Ireland that the King would be likely to receive the Confederate agents, the more zealous Protestants began to prepare for a counter-mission. Charles expressed himself ready to hear both sides."
  254. ^ Burghclere 1912, p. 243: "It was at the end of June that the Irish commissioners returned from expounding their views to Charles at Oxford. Their voyage had been distinctly unprofitable."
  255. ^ Ó Siochrú 1997, p. 67, note 42: "After the confederates signed the truce with Ormond in September 1643, however, the Scots were the only enemy remaining in the kingdom, until Lord Inchiquin and the Munster garrisons defected from the royalist camp in July 1644."
  256. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 57: "After much discussion Castlehaven was chosen, for he was generally liked, and no one suspected him of personal ambition."
  257. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 60: "Castlehaven lay at Charlemont and Monro at Tanderagee but there was no general action ..."
  258. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 70: "After Marston Moor [July 1644] it became evident that the King was powerless to protect the Irish Protestants, and Inchiquin resolved to throw in his lot with the Parliament."
  259. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 149, line 11: "Inchiquin had definitely joined the Parliamentary party, and so was a menace to the peace of the South."
  260. ^ Cregan 1995, p. 511 top: "Fourth Supreme Council, July 1644 – Summer 1645 ... Viscount Muskerry ..."
  261. ^ Ó Siochrú 1997, p. 247, note 58: "Viscount Roche, active on early councils, was effectively replaced in 1643-4 by his great rival, Viscount Muskerry."
  262. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 111: "Muskerry, Sir Robert Talbot, Browne, D'Arcy, Dillon, and Plunket set out on the 31st of August 1644 for Dublin where the cessation was extended to December 1 and subsequently to a longer period."
  263. ^ Cusack 1871, p. 314: "In August, 1644, the cessation was again renewed by the General Assembly until December, and subsequently for a longer period."
  264. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 148, line 14: "... continued the cessation from September 15th to December 1st; the Irish Confederates signing it included Muskerry, Plunkett, and others."
  265. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 148, line 18: "A conference was held, beginning on Friday September 6th, between Bolton, Lord Chancellor of Ireland and others appointed by Ormond, on the one side, and Muskerry ..."
  266. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 149, line 5: "... on November 11th the cessation was renewed until January 31, 1645."
  267. ^ Castlehaven 1815, p. 54: "Towards the spring [1645] the Supreme Council ordered me to go against Inchiquin and to begin the field as early as I could."
  268. ^ Castlehaven 1815, p. 59: "I invested it; and having ordered the batteries, and lieut. general Purcell to command, and try if he could have better success with that place now ..."
  269. ^ Adams 1904, p. 284: "The following year [1645] the castle was again besieged, this time by troops under Lord Castlehaven. Major Power with a garrison of a hundred of the Earl's tenants managed to kill five hundred of the besiegers and to make terms before they surrendered."
  270. ^ Murphy, "O'Brien, Murrough", 5th paragraph: "... the confederates missed their opportunity in 1644–6 to make any substantial advance in the province."
  271. ^ Cregan 1995, p. 511 mid: "Fifth Supreme Council, Summer 1645 – 2 March 1646 ... Viscount Muskerry ..."
  272. ^ Joyce 1903, p. 199: "The king, finding he could do nothing through Ormond, sent over the earl of Glamorgan in 1645, who made a secret treaty with the confederates."
  273. ^ Roberts 2004, p. 577, right column: "... the Somerset family was an important financial resource for the king, its estates being valued in December 1641 at between £40,000 to £100,000."
  274. ^ Roberts 2004, p. 579, left column: "... he [Glamorgan] had concluded on 25 August a separate secret treaty of his own."
  275. ^ Pollard 1898, p. 234, right column: "On the 29th [January 1646] the king disavowed the treaty."
  276. ^ Tomassetti, "Innocenzo X, papa": "... l'impegno di I. X [Innocent X] crebbe in Irlanda, dove nell'aprile 1645 fu inviato un nunzio speciale, Giovanni Battista Rinuccini ..."
  277. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 152, line 16: "[Rinuccini] ... landed at Kenmare, October, 21st [1645]."
  278. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 136, line 9: "At the great gate of Macroom Castle he was received by the Lady Helena Butler, sister to Lord Ormond and wife of Lord Muskerry, who was then in Dublin."
  279. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, right column, line 29: "... his [Donough's] wife and son, Charles, welcomed the papal nuncio Rinuccini to their castle at Macroom shortly after his arrival in Ireland in October 1645."
  280. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 136, line 22: "Having passed four days in Macroom ..."
  281. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 102: "He reached Kilkenny November 12 [1645] ..."
  282. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 140, line 6: "The religious ceremonies concluded, the Nunzio retired to the residence provided for him and was waited on by Lord Muskerry and General Preston."
  283. ^ Aiazza 1873, p. 91, line 15: "My first visit to the Supreme Council passed in the following manner:—General Preston and Lord Muskerry ... waited upon me for the part of the Council, upon which I set off on foot accompanied by all the nobility ..."
  284. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 141, line 17: "On conclusion of these formalities, the Nunzio, accompanied by Muskerry and Preston, withdrew ..."
  285. ^ Coonan 1954, p. 228: "... the Assembly had on March 6, 1646 delegated authority to the Confederate agents to conclude peace with Ormond ..."
  286. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 171: "A peace was signed on March 28th, 1646 without the Nuncio's knowledge."
  287. ^ Coffey 1914, pp. 171–172.
  288. ^ Gardiner 1893a, p. 55: "The articles of the treaty which related to the civil government were signed on March 28 [1646]."
  289. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 174, line 10: "[the peace] was not to be published until the 1st of May, owing to the agreement made with Rinuccini and Glamorgan. But even then it was not published, as Ormond wished for directions from Charles. It was therefore arranged to postpone the publication until August 13th."
  290. ^ Corish 1976a, p. 320, line 14: "The treaty was not to be published yet, but Ormond had declared that he could not wait beyond 1 May ..."
  291. ^ Atkinson 1911, p. 416 upper: "... on the night of the 9th–10th [September] Fairfax's army stormed Bristol. Rupert had long realized the hopelessness ..."
  292. ^ Woolrych 2002, p. 343: "Ormond did sign a treaty with Confederate delegates in March 1646, though nothing concrete was to come of it, since Chester surrendered in February."
  293. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 179: "... news of the capture of Chester by the parliament. There was now no place where the Irish could land ..."
  294. ^ Atkinson 1911, p. 416 lower: "Chester, the only important seaport remaining to connect Charles with Ireland ..."
  295. ^ Street 1988, p. 27: "On 3rd June Penn wrote 'The admiral gave me a warrant to go an board and take possession of the Happy Entrance, Regis, and so to be his Vice-Admiral ...' "
  296. ^ Gardiner 1893a, p. 56: "On April 3 Muskerry wrote to Ormond that the expedition must be abandoned ..."
  297. ^ Atkinson 1911, p. 417: "He came to the camp of the Scottish army at Southwell on May 5, 1646."
  298. ^ Gardiner 1898, p. 553: "... they accepted the English offer, took their money, and on January 30, 1647, marched away to their own country, ..."
  299. ^ Aiazza 1873, p. 155, letter by Rinuccini to Cardinal Pamphili, dated 28 March 1646: "The Earl of Glamorgan, who went to Limerick to punish the defection of the Earl of Thomond, has we hear already besieged the palace in which the Earl had admitted the Parliamentarians ..."
  300. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 115: "Thomond surrendered Bunratty to the Parliament in March 1646."
  301. ^ Gardiner 1893a, p. 54, line 16: "A Parliamentary squadron had sailed up the estuary of the Shannon and had seized Bunratty Castle, a few miles below Limerick."
  302. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 117, line=4: "... the siege of Bunratty was likely to be raised for want of money to pay the soldiers."
  303. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 116, in the margin: "Fight at Sixmilebridge, April 1."
  304. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 190: "Reverting to the operations before Bunratty, it is necessary to state that the detachments that Glamorgan was to have brought to England had failed to reduce the place, and that he himself was driven from his camp ... the command then devolved to Lord Muskerry ..."
  305. ^ Coonan 1954, p. 224: "To the end of May the Supreme Council at Limerick appointed Muskerry commander of the confederate force besieging Bunratty."
  306. ^ O'Donoghue 1860, p. 274, line 5: "He [Muskerry] had under him lieutenant-general Purcell, major-general Stephenson, and colonel Purcell, all of them officers trained in the great struggle known since as the thirty years' war."
  307. ^ Gilbert 1879, p. 106: "... my lord of Muskry to goe and leager Bonratty with 3 Linster regiments of foote and 300 horse, and all the Munster forces."
  308. ^ Street 1988, p. 38: "As well as the circle of earthworks and the tidal marshland the castle stood on high ground and had its own defence of a high earth mound."
  309. ^ Street 1988, p. 39: "At length, on the 9 May, Lord Thomond embarked on a ship that was to sail to Cork ..."
  310. ^ O'Donoghue 1860, p. 274, line 36: "... returned to Limerick on the 13th of June, bringing with him the news of this victory [Benburb] ..."
  311. ^ Cusack 1871, p. 317: "... encamped at Benburb. Here, on the 5th of June A.D. 1646 he [Owen Roe O'Neill] won a victory ..."
  312. ^ Hayes-McCoy 1990, p. 182: "The nuncio's supplies made possible the battle of Benburb ..."
  313. ^ O'Donoghue 1860, p. 273: "... he brought to Bunratty the sum of six hundred pounds ..."
  314. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 117, line 7: "The nuncio went himself to the camp at the end of June with all that remained of the Pope's money ..."
  315. ^ O'Donoghue 1860, p. 274, line 15: "... it was resolved to send for two heavy pieces of cannon to Limerick ..."
  316. ^ Adams 1904, p. 69, line 12: "... Muskerry, who seems to have been only half-hearted in attacking his uncle's property ..."
  317. ^ Street 1988, p. 41, line 22: "It was on 1st July [1746] that the tragedy occurred ... Colonel MacAdams rose ... and passing a window when a shot passed through it and killed him."
  318. ^ Adams 1904, p. 69, line 27: "When Muskerry heard this, he decided to attack in force 'knowing how much discouraged they were at the loss of so valiant a person.' "
  319. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 117: "On July 14 [1646] the garrison capitulated and were carried off in Penn's boats."
  320. ^ Adams 1904, p. 69, line 30: "... the garrison capitulated for their lives, and the officers their swords, and returned to Cork by water. This was in 1646."
  321. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 179, line 12: "... the garrison escaped with their lives, but leaving arms, ammunition and provisions in the hands of the Irish."
  322. ^ Smith 1893, p. 90: "In the beginning of the year [1646], Lord Broghill took the castle of Blarney ..."
  323. ^ Adams 1904, p. 61: "... in 1646 Lord Broghill, afterwards Earl of Orrery, took the castle of Blarney and made it his headquarters."
  324. ^ Gilbert 1879, p. 122, line 34: "... notice came to Muskry residinge then at the siedge of Bonratty, that Mallarny [Blarney] was taken by a partie of Insichuynes horse ..."
  325. ^ Webb 1878, p. 58, right column: "... on 29th July 1646 a 'peace' was concluded by the Marquis [Ormond] on behalf of the King, and by Muskerry on behalf of the Confederates."
  326. ^ Coonan 1954, p. 241: "Either the peace was concluded March 28, 1646 or July 20, 1646."
  327. ^ Wedgwood 1978, p. 570, line 30: "On July 30 Lord Muskerry and his colleagues having ratified the treaty in defiance of the Nuncio, Ormonde had it formally proclaimed in Dublin."
  328. ^ Dunlop 1906, p. 530, line 16: "... the Supreme Council passed a resolution authorising the ratification and publication of the peace. The resolution had been carried in face of the fiercest opposition of the Nuncio."
  329. ^ O Callaghan 1990, p. 34, left column: "Thus when Ormond published the peace on 30 July and the Supreme Council did so at Kilkenny on 5 August ..."
  330. ^ Dunlop 1906, p. 530, line 28: " ... convoked a meeting of the clergy to Waterford, where on August 12 a resolution was passed condemning the peace and forbidding its proclamation under pain of excommunication ..."
  331. ^ Ó hAnnracháin 2008, p. 69, line 18: "During August and September the Irish clergy, marshalled and led by the papal nuncio, first denounced the peace and then excommunicated all who supported it."
  332. ^ Dunlop 1906, p. 530, line 33: "On September 18 Rinuccini entered Kilkenny in triumph ... It was a most successful coup d'état ..."
  333. ^ Casway 2004, p. 854, left column, line 27: "By the end of August 1646 O'Neill had directed his forces to Kilkenny to support the position of the nuncio ..."
  334. ^ Carte 1851c, p. 266: "... on the 26th [September 1646] by a solemn decree [Rinuccini] appointed a new council consisting of four bishops and eight laymen ..."
  335. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 196: "... chose a new council composed of four bishops and eight laymen with himself as president."
  336. ^ Ó Siochrú 1997, p. 242, line 10: "when the clerical faction seized power later that same year [1646], they appointed a new council of 17, the first and only occasion the General Assembly was not involved in the procedure."
  337. ^ Cregan 1995, p. 511 low: "Seventh Supreme Council: 17 September 1646 – 17 March 1647 (17 members) ... Archbishop Giovanni Battista Rinuccini (president) ... Earl of Glamorgan ... Viscount Roche ... Owen Roe O'Neill ..."
  338. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 129: "Rinuccini then proceeded to imprison the old Supreme Council. Mountgarret's eldest son Edmond, Belling, the secretary and historian, Lord Muskerry ... were among those confined in the castle."
  339. ^ Coonan 1954, p. 234: "Mountgarret was set at large, but all the others were jailed at the castle, except Muskerry who was put under house arrest."
  340. ^ Hickson 1884, p. 197: "... the Nuncio and his party prosecuted ... him, the Lord Muskerry for insisting on the peace and seized on him and Sir Robert Talbot ... etc., who were kept prisoners at Kilkenny "
  341. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 196, line 32: "Having removed Muskerry from the command of the confederates in Munster and appointed Glamorgan in his stead ..."
  342. ^ Morley 2016, p. 329: "... the poetry of Pádraigín Haicéad, an Old English priest from Tipperary, who spent some time in Louvain and hailed the outbreak of the 1641 rebellion in [Gaelic] verse: Caithfid fir Éireann uile& ..."
  343. ^ Ó hAnnracháin 2008, p. 69, line 23: "Evidently, Haicéad identified entirely with the clerical position during this upheaval ..."
  344. ^ Ó Cuív 1976, p. 529: "Although at the beginning of the seventeenth century Irish had not lost its dominant position, there is no doubt that the confiscations and plantations that accompanied the Elizabethan conquest left the way open for the spread of English."
  345. ^ Morley 2016, p. 335: "Although it is true that English spread from east to west, it also spread from the top to the bottom of society: if the gentry acquired English in the seventeenth century, the rural middle class followed suit in the eighteenth ..."
  346. ^ Carte 1851c, p. 274: "... on Nov. 2 [1646] the two generals joined in sending propositions to the lord lieutenant, demanding the admission of Roman Catholic garrisons into Dublin ..."
  347. ^ Carte 1851c, p. 276: "Preston came with his army to Lucan on Nov. 9, the nuncio arrived there on the 11th"
  348. ^ Carte 1851c, p. 278: "... on the 16th a person came to the door with intelligence that the English forces were landed and received in Dublin. O'Neile ... decamped in the night with his army ..."
  349. ^ Aiazza 1873, p. 347, letter by Rinuccini to Cardinal Panzirolo, dated 24 December 1647: "... It was principally owing to Plunket that those who lent a hand to the peace were released last year from prison ..."
  350. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 137: "The Confederate assembly met at Kilkenny on January 10 [1647] ..."
  351. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 309, left column, last paragraph: "In March the general assembly elected him [Antrim] president of the new supreme council ..."
  352. ^ Cregan 1995, p. 511 bottom: "Eighth Supreme Council: 17 March – 12 November 1647 (21 members) ... Marquis of Antrim (president) ... Viscount Muskerry ..."
  353. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 211, line 25: "A new Supreme Council of twenty-four was now elected; all of whom, with the exception of Muskerry and three others, were inflexibly opposed to the Marquess of Ormond."
  354. ^ McGettigan, "Somerset, Edward", 5th paragraph, last sentence: "On the death of his father in December 1646 he became marquess of Worcester"
  355. ^ McGettigan, "Somerset, Edward", 6th paragraph: "In the same year [1647] he [Worcester] was appointed General of Munster by the confederate supreme council ..."
  356. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 215, line 7: "... the want of money and provisions ... Fifty thousand dollars, forwarded by the Holy See for the confederate armies, were still on the coast of France; but the Parliamentary cruisers stood in the way ..."
  357. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 215, line 22: "... the army reluctantly obeyed the Englishman [Worcester] who had superseded Muskerry."
  358. ^ Warner 1768, p. 121, line 12: "But the gentry of the province considered this as an affront, to have a stranger put upon them;"
  359. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 215, line 24: "Several regiments mutinied demanding that the latter [Muskerry] should be re-appointed ..."
  360. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 215, line 15: "In the beginning of June, the supreme council proceeded to Clonmel ..."
  361. ^ Gilbert 1879, p. 141: "My lord Muskry ... with Lieutenant Generall Pursell in his company ... putts himself in posture on a hill in sight of the armie ..."
  362. ^ Warner 1768, p. 121, line 25: "In the mean time he [Muskerry] repaired to the army, where he had great interest; and in an hour's time they declared for him, and turned Lord Glamorgan out of this command."
  363. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 215: "... Glamorgan by way of reparation to his honour, was reinstated for a few days, and then ceded the command to Muskerry"
  364. ^ Aiazza 1873, p. 268, letter by Rinuccini to Cardinal Pamphili, dated 25 March 1647: "... In Munster a plot has been discovered, headed by Viscount Muskerry, against the Marquess of Worcester who is general there, and prosecuted with so much ardour that it may cause the loss of the whole province ..."
  365. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 194: "Early in August [1647] Muskerry laid down his command, which was given to Lord Taaffe."
  366. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 152: "Muskerry, having got rid of Glamorgan, ... handed over the command in Munster to Taaffe."
  367. ^ Healy 1893, p. 346: "The Southerners vented their displeasure of Glamorgan in mutiny, with the result that Lord Muskerry, their old general was restored, who appointed Lord Taaffe commander."
  368. ^ Bagwell 1895, p. 323, left column, line 14: "Cappoquin and Dromana against which he had cherished designs since 1642 were easily taken. There was a little fighting at Dungarvan ... This was early in May."
  369. ^ Meehan 1882, p. 225, line 9: "His [Inchiquin's] third raid on the Cathedral and city of Cashel, in Sept. (1647) ..."
  370. ^ Airy 1886, p. 56, left column: "On the 28th [July 1647] Ormonde delivered up the regalia and sailed for England, landing at Bristol on 2 Aug."
  371. ^ Webb 1878, p. 59, left column, line 45: "On 28th of July the Marquis, leaving the Viceregal regalia to be delivered to the Parliamentarian commissioners, took ship at Dublin and landed at Bristol after a five-days passage."
  372. ^ Mangianiello 2004, p. 171: "Dungan Hill Date: August 8, 1647 ..."
  373. ^ Aiazza 1873, p. 309, letter by Rinuccini to Cardinal Pamphili, dated 29 August 1647: "... in consequence of Preston's defeat in Leinster, Muskerry had been obliged to invite O'Neill, and to throw himself on his protection;"
  374. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 195: "The army then moved to Knocknanuss or Knock-na-gaoll, where on November 13th [1647] Taaffe was routed by Inchiquin."
  375. ^ Hill 1873, p. 274, footnote 53: "Towards the close of the year 1647, the Catholics met in Kilkenny, and agreed that, as all access to the captive king was forbidden, they would invite the prince his son to come to Ireland ... The commissioners appointed were the marquess of Antrim, lord Muskerry, and Mr. Geoffrey Browne."
  376. ^ Gardiner 1893b, p. 109: "... sending three commissioners to France with the twofold objective of inviting the Prince of Wales to Ireland ... and of coming to an agreement with the queen on terms of peace which might supersede those formerly arranged with Ormond."
  377. ^ Airy 1886, p. 56, left column, line 37: "Warned in February 1647-8 that the parliament intended to seize his person, he escaped to France ..."
  378. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, p. 205: "Antrim and the abbot made excellent progress and were in St Germain, near Paris, by early March, arriving shortly after Ormond himself."
  379. ^ Burghclere 1912, p. 341: "... Muskerry and Geoffrey Brown, who, in February 1648, set sail for France."
  380. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 162: "Muskerry and Brown reached St. Malo on March 14, and on April 2 made written proposals to the Queen and Prince."
  381. ^ Corish 1976a, p. 327, line 18: "The three envoys, including Antrim, were received in formal audience by the queen on 3 April 1648 (N.S.)."
  382. ^ Seaward 2004, p. 124, left column, line 36: "In May [1648] pro-royalist risings broke out in a number of places in England and Wales, and part of the English fleet defected to the king. At the end of June Prince Charles prepared to join the action ..."
  383. ^ Seaward 2004, p. 124, right column, top: "The invitation to Prince Charles was withdrawn [by the Scots]."
  384. ^ Gardiner 1893b, p. 162, line 28: "... Antrim was steadfast in declaring that no terms of peace would be accepted in Ireland until they had received the approval of the Pope and that it was absolutely necessary that a Catholic Lord-Lieutenant should be appointed;"
  385. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 172, last line: "Antrim was much disgusted at not having been made Lord Lieutenant ..."
  386. ^ Gardiner 1893b, p. 111: "Inchiquin had, on April 3, openly declared for the King ..."
  387. ^ Gardiner 1893b, p. 162: "Muskerry and Brown urged Henrietta Maria to appoint Ormond Lord Lieutenant without waiting for the pope's approbation and to sanction an understanding between Inchiquin and the Confederates. After some hesitation the Queen gave her decision in favour of the latter policy."
  388. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", 7th paragraph: "Muskerry sailed for Ireland in June to prepare the ground for Ormond's return ...
  389. ^ Airy 1886, p. 56, left column, line 50: "... and in August, he [Ormond] himself began his journey thither. On leaving Havre, he was shipwrecked and had to wait in that port for some weeks; but at the end of September he again embarked, arriving at Cork on the 29th."
  390. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, right column, line 24: "... president of the confederate high court of admiralty."
  391. ^ Murphy 2012a, p. 122, line 21: "Donough MacCarthy, viscount Muskerry, the Irish lord high admiral, also gave out commissions solely under his name like those from November 1648 for the and the ."
  392. ^ Moody & Martin 2001, p. 406, line 5: "Second 'Ormond peace' with the Confederates (17 Jan. [1649])"
  393. ^ Duffy 2002, p. 114, line 38: "The confederacy was dissolved ..."
  394. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 175, note: "The Commissioners of Trust were Viscounts Dillon and Muskerry, Lord Athenry, Alexander MacDonnell, Sirs Lucas Dillon, Nicholas Plunket, and Richard Barnewall, Geoffrey Browne, Donough O'Callaghan, Turlagh O'Neill, Miles O'Reilly, and Gerald Fennell Esquires."
  395. ^ Godwin 1827, p. 138: "... it recognized a body of twelve commissioners with the Lords Dillon of Costello and Muskerry at their head ..."
  396. ^ Joyce 1903, p. 202: "... to fortify the old castle of Rathmines. But Colonel Jones sallied forth in the night and surprised not only Purcell but Ormond himself and utterly routed the entire army (2nd of August 1649)."
  397. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 213: "Cromwell landed in Dublin on August 15th [1649]."
  398. ^ Corish 1976b, p. 337: "After the execution of the King [by Parliament] it was necessary to secure the new English state from royalist dangers from Ireland and Scotland. Ireland was given priority. The enclaves held by Parliament were threatened by the Royalists' forces now united under Ormonde; satisfaction was due to the Adventurers, who had invested money in the reconquest of Ireland on the strength of acts passed by Parliament in 1642; and vengeance had to be exacted for what was now unquestionably accepted as the planned general massacre of 1641"
  399. ^ Carte 1851c, p. 539: "The marquess of Ormond then desired the lord Roche to raise a body of men in his country and attempt the relief of the place [Clonmel]."
  400. ^ Adams 1904, p. 290: "Upon approach of Lord Broghill with a body of horse, the garrison in the castle set fire to it and joined the main body encamped outside."
  401. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 223: "... they burned Muskerry's castle at Macroom and assembled in the park. They were raw levies and probably badly armed, for they were routed in a very short time."
  402. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 223, in the margin: "Battle of Macroom, 10 April 1650"
  403. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 221: "In April [1650] an Irish force had been defeated at Macroom by Broghill."
  404. ^ Ó Siochrú, "Roche, Maurice", Middle of the 1st paragraph: "Undeterred, he raised an army with Boetius McEgan (qv), bishop of Ross, but their defeat by Roger Boyle (qv), Lord Broghill, at Macroom (10 April 1650) effectively ended organised confederate resistance in south Munster."
  405. ^ Belloc 1934, p. 259: "... left the townsmen free to surrender if they would, but not until he should have marched his men out of the town by night ... not till this was fully accomplished did the Mayor send to Cromwell for a parley. It was the 10th of May, 1650."
  406. ^ Burke 1907, p. 78: "Articles were made between the Lord Leifetenant [i.e. Cromwell] and the Inhabitants thereof touching the reddition thereof, May the 18th, 1650."
  407. ^ Ashley 1954, p. 76, last line: "... when Cromwell was recalled to England on account of the threat from Scotland ..."
  408. ^ Morrill 2004, p. 337, right column: "Cromwell was recalled from Ireland specifically to command the New Model Army ... in a war with the Scots."
  409. ^ Belloc 1934, p. 260: "He sailed on the 19th of May [1650] from Youghal, handing over his command to his son-in-law, Ireton."
  410. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", 8th paragraph, 4th sentence: In April 1651 Ormond's deputy, Ulick Burke (qv), marquis of Clanricarde, granted him supreme command in Munster, in the absence of James Tuchet (qv), earl of Castlehaven" ..."
  411. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 268, (In the margin): "His (Broghill's) victory near Kanturk, July 26 [1651]."
  412. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 214, line 24: "... he [Muskerry] was severely defeated by Lord Broghill in June 1651, near Dromagh ..."
  413. ^ Gibson 1861b, p. 114, line 16: "Lord Broghill who received intelligence that a body of Lord Muskerry's horse had marched from the castle of Dromagh ..."
  414. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 222: "The last real battle fought in Ireland until the battle of the Boyne, nearly forty years later was at Knockbrack, on July 26th when Broghill fought Muskerry."
  415. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 222, line 17: "The siege lasted until October 27th [1651], when the town surrendered."
  416. ^ Firth 1894, p. 320, line 10: "Ross in Kerry; where the Lord Muskerry made his principal rendezvous, and which was the only place of strength the Irish had left, except the woods, bogs and mountains ..."
  417. ^ Cokayne 1900, p. 237, line 19: "III. 1640. Sir Valentine Browne, Bart [I. [Ireland] 1622] of Molahiffe aforesaid, 1st s. [son] and h. [heir] b. [born] 1638, being but 2 years old at his father's death, when he suc. [succeeded] to the Baronetcy 25 April 1640;"
  418. ^ Adams 1904, p. 327: "In 1651, Muskerry was guardian to his nephew Sir Valentine Browne ..."
  419. ^ Wells 2015, p. 87: "... a bounty list issued by the English authorities in late May and June 1652, which offered substantial sums for 'the persons or the heads' of prominent confederates including £500 for Donough MacCarthy, Viscount Muskerry ..."
  420. ^ Ó Siochrú 2005, p. 927: "Viscount Muskerry decided to approach Lorraine directly. He instructed an agent to request that the duke direct supplies to Muskerry's own area of operations in south Kerry, or failing that, to inquire about possible employment for the viscount on the continent."
  421. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 223"Ross Castle ... lies on the shores of Lough Leane."
  422. ^ Firth 1894, p. 320, line 19: "... the enemy received continual supplies from those parts that lay on the other side ... "
  423. ^ Prendergast 1854, p. 29: "... the number of boats provided for the assault of Ross Castle was not less than twenty, each capable to carry fifty to sixty men; two of them pinnaces ..."
  424. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, right column, line 55: "... finally surrendering at Ross Castle (27 June 1652) ..."
  425. ^ O Callaghan 1990, p. 36, left column, line 12: "... [Muskerry] who held out for three weeks at Ross castle ..."
  426. ^ Firth 1894, p. 321, line 11: "... much time was spent in the discussion of some particulars, especially that concerning the murder of the English, which was an exception we never failed to make; so that the Irish commissioners seeming doubtful whether by the wording that article they were all included, desired that it may be explained; to which we consented ... "
  427. ^ Firth 1894, p. 322, line 4: "... his son together with Daniel Obryan were delivered to me [Edmund Ludlow] as hostages ..."
  428. ^ Ó Siochrú, "O'Brien, Sir Daniel", End of 2nd paragraph: "... he Daniel submitted to the English parliament under the articles agreed the following year by Donogh MacCarthy, Viscount Muskerry. O'Brien was one of the hostages ..."
  429. ^ Firth & Rait 1911, p. 599: "That James Butler Earl of Ormond, James Touchet Earl of Castlehaven, Ullick Bourk Earl of Clanrickard, Christopher Plunket Earl of Fingal, James Dillon Earl of Roscomon, Richard Nugent Earl of Westmeath, Morrogh O Brien Baron of Inchiquin, Donogh Mac Carthy Viscount Muskerry ... be excepted from pardon for Life and Estate."
  430. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 223, line 7: "Clanricarde attempted to continue resistance but eventually submitted on June 28th, 1652."
  431. ^ Corish 1976b, p. 352, line 7: "The last formal capitulation was by Philip O'Reilly at Cloughoughter on 27 April 1653."
  432. ^ Webb 1878, p. 303, right column, line 49: "He then passed into Spain."
  433. ^ O Callaghan 1990, p. 36, left column, line 34: "Apparently they [Muskerry and Callaghan O Callaghan] had gone to Spain, where they discovered that because of their adherence to the Ormondist faction in the Confederation of Kilkenny, they were not received with great warmth by other Irish exiles ..."
  434. ^ O'Donoghue 1860, p. 299: "... he [Muskerry] entered into a treaty with the Venetian republic ..."
  435. ^ Firth 1894, p. 341, line 21: "... entered into a treaty to put himself and his men into the service of the venetians."
  436. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 107, right column, line 57: "Despite being exempted from pardon of life and estate by the Act for the Settling of Ireland (August 1652), Muskerry returned to Ireland late in 1653."
  437. ^ Hickson 1884, p. 174: "The Lord Muskerry is lately landed in Cork and says he will cast himself on the Parliament's mercy."
  438. ^ Burghclere 1912, p. 437, line 13: "As he believed his articles guaranteed immunity, he now unwarily ventured back to Ireland in search of new recruits, but he was instantly seized and brought to trial ..."
  439. ^ Ohlmeyer 2012, p. 283: "Viscount Muskerry stood trial charged with 'war crimes' allegedly committed during the early months of the insurrection ..."
  440. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 309: "he [Muskerry] remained a prisoner in Dublin until his trial "
  441. ^ Hickson 1884, p. 192, top: "High Court of Justice, Dublin, December 1st 1653. Trial of the Lord Viscount Muskerry as accessory to the murder of: I. Mrs. Hussey ... II. William Deane ... III. Roger Skinner ..."
  442. ^ Hickson 1884, p. 192, section II.: "... at Kilfenny, co. Limerick, on the 29th July 1642."
  443. ^ Gilbert 1882b, p. 72: "I was forced to cry quarter, but could not get it but upon condicion that what presners war for the Ingles army shold be given to them to redem me; wich my Lord of Incequin most honarble ded and sent a nobell convay of cavalears ..."
  444. ^ Bourke 2002, p. 24: "I was forced to cry quarter, but could not get it but upon condition that what prisoners were for the English army should be given to them to redeem me, which my lord of Inchiquin most honourably did and sent a noble convoy of cavaliers ..."
  445. ^ Hickson 1884, p. 192, under I.: "... near Blarney in the county Cork on the 1st of August 1642."
  446. ^ Firth 1894, p. 341, line 13: "... Lord Muskerry had taken what care he could for their security, and had done what in him lay to bring the person who was guilty of that blood to justice, the court acquitted him ..."
  447. ^ Hickson 1884, p. 92, under III.: "... at Inniskerry, co. Cork, August 1642."
  448. ^ a b Hickson 1884, p. 235, line 11: "Dec. 1653. Lord Muskerry for Mr. Deane and three others and a woman named Nora.—As to the matter of fact guilty. As to article considered not guilty. Same for Roger Skinner.—Not guilty"
  449. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough": "... the Cromwellian regime retried him in February 1654 for his part in various royalist conspiracies."
  450. ^ Perceval-Maxwell 2004, p. 131: "... in 1653 the English Parliament issued an order to permit her to live in her house at Dunmore, co. Kilkenny, and receive £2000 per annum from her estate ..."
  451. ^ Ball 1926, p. 257, line 8: "... Lowther, who became president of the high court ..."
  452. ^ Ball 1926, p. 333, penultimate line: "... [Lowther] appears as president of the high court there [in Ireland] 1652–1654;"
  453. ^ Mountmorres 1792, p. 231: "... she had an opportunity of doing him great service; for she secretly visited the lord chief justice Lowther, who had high reverence for her, and he dictated to her what that lord should plead and how to answer every thing that should in public on his trial be objected against him;"
  454. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 108, left column, line 6: "He was retried in February 1654 for his part in royalist conspiracies, but thanks to the influence that Lady Ormond enjoyed with the Cromwellian authorities was again acquitted."
  455. ^ Hickson 1884, p. 235, line 15: "May. 1654. Lord Muskerry for murder of a man and a woman unknown.—Not guilty"
  456. ^ O Callaghan 1990, p. 36, right column, line 17: "Muskerry was acquitted of the [first] charge and of a second murder charge in May 1654, when he was allowed to go into exile."
  457. ^ Scott 1905, p. 493, line 18: "On the 14th of July [1654] he [Charles II] reached Flemnish territory ..."
  458. ^ Clark 1921, p. 8, line 27: "... his [Antoine Hamilton's] mother and his aunt, Lady Muskerry, had apartments at the Couvent des Feuillantines in Paris ..."
  459. ^ Sainte-Beuve 1878, p. 107: "Mesdemoiselles Hamilton et Muskry furent mises à Port-Royal; elles durent y être dès avant 1655."
  460. ^ Clark 1972, p. 51: "La Mère Angélique seems to have suggested his going to Poland to offer not only his services, but also those of his five thousand men who were in an 'extrême misère', and on November 20th, 1654, she writes to the Queen, Marie de Gonzague ..."
  461. ^ Bagwell 1909b, p. 310, line 1: "... [Muskerry] went later to Poland ..."
  462. ^ Ó Siochrú, "Bellings, Richard", 6th paragraph: "He travelled to Poland in 1655 with Donough MacCarthy ..."
  463. ^ Cusack 1871, p. 321: "... lord Muskerry took 5000 to Poland;"
  464. ^ Prendergast 1868, p. 78: "Lord Muskerry took 5000 to the King of Poland."
  465. ^ Sanford 2003, p. xxxv, line 10: "The Swedish 'Deluge' (Potop) of 1655–1660 devastated the country ..."
  466. ^ Burghclere 1912, p. 426, line 22: "... Charles's envoys had collected £20,000 in Poland and Muscovy."
  467. ^ Clark 1921, p. 9: "A little later [in 1657], Charles ... despatched Sir George Hamilton and his brother-in-law, Lord Muskerry, to Madrid to find out whether it would be agreeable to the King of Spain that the Irish now in Spain and those who would come over from the French should be sent immediately into Ireland."
  468. ^ Firth 1903, p. 85: "[At the battle of the Dunes] The second [battalion] consisted of the Duke of York's regiment under Lord Muskerry."
  469. ^ Webb 1878, p. 303, line 53: "Macarty, Charles, eldest son of preceding [i.e. the 2nd Viscount Muskerry], took service in France and distinguished himself in the Low countries."
  470. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 215, line 2: "As reward for his services he was by patent dat. [dated] at Brussels 27 Nov., 1658, cr. [created] Earl of Clancarty, Co. Cork [I. [Ireland] ]"
  471. ^ Burke & Burke 1909, p. 6, line 46: "... such eldest sons of Peers ... as enjoy a plurality of titles, take and use the secondary one by courtesy."
  472. ^ Barnard & Fenlon 2000, p. 181: "Clancarty, who availed of the duke's influence to recover his estates ..."
  473. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 108, left column, line 12: "By Charles II's 'gracious declaration' (30 November 1660) Clancarty recovered his extensive Munster patrimony."
  474. ^ Ohlmeyer 2001, p. 269: "... Clancarty was restored to his estates 'without waiting for compensation to the settlers' ..."
  475. ^ J. C. 1908, p. 105, line 22: "In 1654, Cromwell wrote to Ireland to direct that the Admiral should have lands to the value of £300 per year in the Co. Cork, near some fortified place. The place selected was that same Castle and Manor of Macroom ..."
  476. ^ J. C. 1908, p. 105, line 31: "As an equivalent, Penn got the castle and lands of Shanagarry near Cloyne."
  477. ^ Breffny 1977, p. 54: "On the Restoration the Lord of Muskerry was rewarded for his loyalty by Charles II, restored to his estate and granted a peerage."
  478. ^ Barnard 2004a, p. 111, left column: "... had recently been augmented by the belated passage of an ordinance which conferred on him [Broghill] confiscated properties in co. Cork including Blarney Castle and Ballymaloe."
  479. ^ Adams 1904, p. 291: "... the stronghold was restored to the MacCarthys, and was enlarged and modernised by the Earl of Clancarty."
  480. ^ Brewer 1826, p. 446, line 18: "... after sustaining which injury [the fire] it was repaired and rendered habitable by the earls of Clancarty."
  481. ^ Simms 1986, p. 52, line 17: "Charlemont and Clancarty houses were on College Green ..."
  482. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 215, line 10: "He [Charles MacCarthy] m. [married] shortly after 2 Mar. 1659/60 and before May 1661, Margaret, only da. [daughter] of Ulick ..."
  483. ^ Burke & Burke 1909, p. 1839, line 54: "1. Katherine, m. [married] 1658, John FitzGerald of Dromana, Lord of the Decies, and d. [died] 22 Aug. 1660."
  484. ^ Creighton, "Plunket, Luke", Last paragraph, 2nd sentence: "At some point before 1666 he married Margaret, daughter of Donough MacCarthy, 1st earl of Clancarty ..."
  485. ^ Ashley 1977, p. 211, line : "Eighteen days later [August 1660] he [Monck] was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, a lucrative post."
  486. ^ Fryde et al. 1986, p. 168, bottom: "1660 ? June / Lt.-Gen. George Monck, duke of Albemarle, L.L. [Lord Lieutenant]"
  487. ^ Smith 1893, p. 103: "Soon after, Lord Orrery, with the Earl of Mountrath and Sir Maurice Eustace, lord chancellor, were declared lord justices of Ireland, and sent over with a commission to hold a parliament ..."
  488. ^ House of Lords 1779, p. 231: "Die Mercurii, 8o Maii, Anno Regn. Dni Caroli II, 13o Annoq; 1661o The Lords who had sat before in Parliament ..."
  489. ^ House of Lords 1779, p. 236, left column: "Monday, the 20th of May, 1661. Ordered, that the Earl Clancarty, being at the Door and desiring to be introduced, shall be introduced."
  490. ^ House of Lords 1779, p. 246, right column: "Die Martis 11o Junii 1661o ... The Earl of Inchiquin's Proxy, assigned to the Earl of Clancarty read and allowed."
  491. ^ Duffy 2002, p. 118, line 3: "In 1662 another Act of Settlement was passed, the purpose of which was to sort out the sorry mess that existed between the many existing claims ..."
  492. ^ House of Lords 1779, p. 305, left column, bottom: "30th of May, 1662 ... that the Act intitled an Act for the better Execution of his Majesty's gracious Declaration for the Settlement of this kingdom of Ireland, and Satisfaction of the several Interests of Adventurers, Soldiers and other his Subjects there, shall pass as a Law."
  493. ^ House of Lords 1779, p. 331, left column: "... ordered that the Viscount Muskry be added to the Committee for managing the free Conferences with the House of Commons concerning the $30,000 for his Grace the duke of Ormond, in room of the Earl of Clancarty ..."
  494. ^ House of Lords 1779, p. 358, right column: "A bill for taking away the Court of Wards and liveries, and Tenure in capite and knight's service – Tertia vice lecta – Passed nemine contradicente"
  495. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 108, left column, line 22: "... he [Clancarty] attended regularly until April 1663 when he moved to London."
  496. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", last paragraph, 1st sentence: "Clancarty travelled to Ireland one last time in 1664, visiting his estates, before returning to England."
  497. ^ Pemsel 1977, p. 50: "13 June 1665 Battle of Lowestoft"
  498. ^ Ó Siochrú, "MacCarthy, Donough", last paragraph, penultimate sentence: "Cormac was killed in June 1665 at the battle of Solebay "
  499. ^ Chester 1876, p. 162: "1662 June 19 The Right Hon. Charles, Viscount Muskerry: in the same [North] aisle near the Earl of Marlborough."
  500. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 216: "2. Charles James (MacCarty), Earl of Clancarty, & [I. [Ireland] ], grandson and h. [heir], being only s. [son] and h. of Charles (MacCarty) Viscount Muskerry ..."
  501. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 215, line 6: "He [Clancarty] d. [died] in London, 4 Aug. 1665."
  502. ^ Seccombe 1893, p. 437, left column"He died in London on 5 Aug. 1665."
  503. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 108, left column, line 24: "He died at Ormond's residence at Moor Park in August 1665."
  504. ^ Ohlmeyer 2004, p. 108, left column, line 28: "The duke had ensured that a priest was present since he believed that 'it is the part of a good Christian to help another die like one in his own way, nor yet believing that the merciful God hath so limited his Salvation as passionate and interested men have done.' "
  505. ^ Cokayne 1913, p. 216, line 4: "... d. [died] an infant, 22 Sep. 1666."
  506. ^ Burke 1866, p. 344, right column, line 42: "Charles, 2nd earl, who d. [died] a child, in 1668, and was s. [succeeded] by his uncle Callaghan, 3rd Earl."



Subject matter monographs:

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Parliament of Ireland
Preceded by

Member of Parliament for Cork County
With: Sir William St Leger
Succeeded by
Donough MacCarty
Sir William St Leger
Preceded by
Donough MacCarty
Sir William St Leger
Member of Parliament for Cork County
With: Sir William St Leger
Succeeded by
Peerage of Ireland
New creation Earl of Clancarty
1st creation
Succeeded by
Charles James MacCarty
Preceded by Viscount Muskerry
Baronetage of Nova Scotia
New creation Baronet
(of Muskerry)
c. 1638 – 1665
Succeeded by
Charles James MacCarty
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