2007 Kenyan general election

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2007 Kenyan presidential election

← 2002 27 December 2007 2013 →
  Mwai Kibaki, October 2003.jpg Raila Odinga 2009.jpg Kalonzo Musyoka1.jpg
Nominee Mwai Kibaki Raila Odinga Kalonzo Musyoka
Party PNU ODM ODM–Kenya
Popular vote 4,584,721 4,352,993 879,903
Percentage 46.4% 44.1% 8.9%

Kenya Provinces 2007 elections.PNG
Presidential election results map. Green denotes provinces won by Kibaki, and Yellow denotes those won by Odinga.

President before election

Mwai Kibaki

Elected President

Mwai Kibaki

General elections were held in Kenya on 27 December 2007.[1] Voters elected the President, and members of the National Assembly. They coincided with the 2007 Kenyan local elections.

Incumbent Mwai Kibaki, running on a Party of National Unity (PNU) ticket, defeated Raila Odinga, leader of the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) and Kalonzo Musyoka of Orange Democratic Movement–Kenya. The elections were strongly marked by tribal hostility, with Kibaki a member of the traditionally dominant Kikuyu ethnic group, gaining much support amongst the Kikuyu and neighbouring groups in central Kenya, including the Embu and Meru. Odinga, as a member of the Luo ethnic group, succeeded in creating a wider base by building a coalition with regional leaders from the Luhya in Western Kenya, Kalenjin from the Rift Valley and Muslim leaders from the Coast Province. Kibaki was declared the winner with 46% of the vote, and was sworn in at State House on 30 December. However, opposition leader Raila Odinga also claimed victory,[2][3] and civil unrest broke out resulting in the deaths of several hundred people and the displacement of up to 600,000. This was ended by the National Accord and Reconciliation Act, which led to Odinga being appointed as Prime Minister.

In the National Assembly elections, the ODM won 99 of the 208 seats, with the PNU finishing second with 43 seats. The Kenya African National Union, which had ruled the country from independence until 2002 was reduced to being the fourth-largest party with only 15 seats. Only 71 of the 190 sitting MPs were re-elected, twenty ministers lost their seats and a record 15 female MPs were elected.[4]

There is agreement in the international community that the presidential elections were at least partially manipulated.[5] In July 2008, an exit poll commissioned by the US was released, suggested that Odinga was predicted to have won the presidency by a comfortable margin of 6%, 46% to 40%, well outside the exit poll's 1.3% margin of error.[6]


Presidential candidates[]

Incumbent president Mwai Kibaki declared his intention to run for re-election on 26 January 2007, although he had previously declared prior to the 2002 elections that he needed only one term as president.[7] On 16 September 2007, Kibaki announced that he would run as the candidate of a new alliance called the Party of National Unity, which would include a number of parties, including KANU,[8][9] the Democratic Party, NARC–Kenya, FORD-Kenya, Ford–People and Shirikisho among others.[9]

The Orange Democratic Movement–Kenya (ODM–Kenya) alliance was expected to field the strongest challenger to Kibaki; the main parties originally affiliated to ODM–Kenya were the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and KANU.[10] At the time of the 2002 elections, the LDP had been part of the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) movement backing Kibaki, but its ministers were dismissed from the cabinet after the 2005 constitutional referendum.[11] KANU and LDP had originally teamed up for the 2005 referendum under the banner Orange Democratic Movement,[12] but former president Daniel arap Moi was among the KANU faction opposing involvement with the ODM–Kenya coalition.[13] As a result, ODM–Kenya split in two in August 2007, one remaining as ODM–Kenya and led by Kalonzo Musyoka, the other going by the name Orange Democratic Movement (ODM). KANU subsequently left the coalition entirely, and Moi announced his support for Kibaki, his former political enemy, in late August.[14] Uhuru Kenyatta followed suit and announced his support for Kibaki in mid-September. KANU did not nominate as presidential candidate, although it contested the National Assembly elections.[15]

Several ODM members vied for presidency, including Musyoka, Raila Odinga, Kenyatta (before KANU's withdrawal), William Ruto, Najib Balala, Musalia Mudavadi and Joseph Nyagah.[16] Following the August 2007 split, ODM–Kenya appointed Musyoka as its candidate on 31 August and the ODM selected Odinga as its candidate on 1 September.[17][18][19]

Presidential candidates presented their nomination papers on 14 and 15 November to the Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) and nine candidates were cleared to be on the ballot in December.[20] All nine presidential candidates also ran for a parliamentary seat as required by Kenyan law; the presidential election winner needed to also win a parliamentary seat to be named president.[21]

National Assembly[]

The ninth parliament was dissolved on Monday 22 October 2007,[22] with the election date of 27 December announced on 26 October 2007 by the ECK. The ECK initially set a deadline of 19 November 2007 for submitting the candidate lists to prevent candidates from defecting after failing to gain nominations from their parties, but later retracted and allowed defections to minor parties.[23] The ODM, PNU and ODM–K held their primary elections on 16 November, with all three termed as chaotic and being marred by irregularities and violence. Numerous candidates defected to smaller parties after failing to get candidature by their respective parties,[24] including Nobel laureate Wangari Maathai, who failed to gain a PNU nomination, and former Interior Minister Chris Murungaru, who lost out to a little-known trader.[25]

There were 14,296,180 registered voters; 68.8% of the electorate were aged between 18–40, with the remaining 31.2% being those over 40.[21]



Kibaki began his presidential campaign on 30 September at Nyayo Stadium in Nairobi.[26] Odinga launched his campaign in Uhuru Park on 6 October 2007.[27][28] On the same day, three ODM supporters were shot (one of them fatally), allegedly by bodyguards of , who was running as the PNU candidate for Odinga's seat in the National Assembly. Livondo was arrested, along with two of his bodyguards and later released.[28] , a bishop and the leader of Kenya People's Party (KPP), officially launched his bid for the presidency on 21 October 2007 at Kamukunji grounds.[29]

Two cabinet ministers, first Health Minister Charity Ngilu and then Regional Co-operation Minister John Koech, backed Odinga in October; Kibaki dismissed Ngilu from the cabinet.[30]

National Assembly[]

A record 2,548 candidates contested the National Assembly elections, more than double the 1,033 that ran in 2002.[31][21] The 269 female candidates was also a record.[31]

The ODM had the highest number of candidates with 190, followed by Kenya National Democratic Alliance (KENDA) with 170, the PNU (135), ODM–K (135), KADDU (97) KANU (91), Safina (88), NARC (73), the Democratic Party (86) and NARC–Kenya (59). A total of 108 parties fielded parliamentary candidates, another record.[31] For the first time, no party fielded a candidate in every constituency; every previous election had seen KANU contest every seat.[31] The Kitutu Masaba Constituency had the highest number of candidates at 33 and all 210 constituencies had at least two candidates, meaning that there were no uncontested seats, another first.[21]

Opinion polls[]

Opinion polls in late October put support for Odinga at 50%, with Kibaki at 39%, and Musyoka at 8%.[32] A poll released in early November put Odinga at 45%, Kibaki at 41% and Musyoka at 11%, while on 23 November a poll placed Odinga and Kibaki at about the same level, with 43.6% and 43.3% respectively.[33]

Date Pollster Kibaki Musyoka Odinga Mudavadi Ruto Kenyatta
October 2006 Steadman International 41% 20% 13% 3% 5%
December 2006 Steadman International 42% 20% 14% 3% 5%
March 2007 Steadman International 51% 14% 17% 2% 2% 2%
April 2007 IRI 44.3% 15.3% 18.7% 2.7% 2.6% 3.5%
June 2007 RMS 45% 14% 28% 4% 3% 4%
July 2007 Steadman International 45% 11% 25% 3% 2% 2%
August 2007 Infotrak/Harris Interactive 42% 11% 25% 8% 6% 1%
August 2007 Steadman International 47% 13% 36% 1% 1%
September 2007 Steadman International[permanent dead link] 38% 8% 47%
13 October 2007 Steadman International 37% 8% 53%
23 October 2007 Steadman International 39% 8% 50%
9 November 2007 Steadman International 41% 11% 45%
21 November 2007 Consumer Insight 41.4% 14.7% 40.7%
17 November 2007 Gallup 42% 11% 45%
23 November 2007 Steadman International[permanent dead link] 43.3% 11.4% 43.6%
7 December 2007 Steadman International 42% 10% 46%
18 December 2007 Steadman International 43% 10% 45%



Early results published by the Kenyan media gave Raila Odinga a narrow lead of 1,691,679 votes against Kibaki's 1,222,725 in 69 of the country's 210 constituencies.[34] Odinga held a strong lead in vote counting on 28 December,[35] and the ODM declared victory on 29 December;[36] however, as more results were announced on the same day, the gap between the two candidates narrowed.[35][36] Early on 30 December, Odinga accused the government of fraud, urged Kibaki to concede defeat, and called for a recount.[37] The ECK declared Kibaki the winner later on 30 December, placing him ahead of Odinga by about 232,000 votes.[38][39] According to Odinga, at least 300,000 votes for Kibaki were falsely included in his total.[40] ECK chairman Samuel Kivuitu said that while irregularities had occurred, they were a matter for the courts, not the Electoral Commission.[41] Following the Commission's declaration of his victory, Kibaki was sworn in for his second term later on the same day,[39][42] saying that he had been told by his people that he had won, calling for the "verdict of the people" to be respected and for "healing and reconciliation" to begin.[39]

Kivuitu said that there were some problems with the count, noting that in one constituency voter turnout was reported as 115%,[43] although this was later clarified by Kivuitu appearing in an interview by Nation Television due to a double entry of one polling station in Maragua Constituency on the parliamentary tally and not the presidential tally. According to the European Union's head election observer, Alexander Graf Lambsdorff, the elections were "flawed"[35] and the ECK had failed to establish "the credibility of the tallying process to the satisfaction of all parties and candidates."[44] The United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary, David Miliband, said that he had "real concerns" about the elections. While the United States initially congratulated Kibaki and called for the results to be respected,[45] it also expressed concern,[46] and on 2 January 2008 a spokesman for the US State Department declined to confirm US recognition of Kibaki's victory.[47] In a telex from then US Embassy in Nairobi to the State Department in Washington DC [released in July 2012], US Ambassador Michael Ranneberger set out five scenarios as to who really won the election. He wrote, ‘In all cases the margin of victory for either side is slim and ultimately unknowable’. The telex also noted that there was ‘evidence of rigging on both sides’[48] and.[49] Kivuitu said on 2 January that he had been pressured by PNU and ODM–K (Kibaki's and Kalonzo Musyoka's parties) into announcing the results without delay, declaring Kibaki the winner; claiming that he did not personally know who really won.[50]

Within minutes of the Commission's declaration of Kibaki's victory, tribe-based rioting and violence, primarily directed against Kikuyus, broke out across Kenya,[35] and the government suspended live television coverage for some days.[35][45][51][52] Odinga alleged that "a clique of people around Kibaki" sought to rig the election, but said that democracy "is unstoppable like the flow of the Nile". The ODM announced its intention to hold a ceremony on 31 December in which Odinga would be declared the "people's president", but police said that this could incite violence and that Odinga could be arrested if the ceremony occurred.[45] Odinga then delayed this, but called for a million-strong rally on 3 January 2008 and for his supporters to wear black armbands as a show of mourning.[53][54]

Odinga said that the ODM would not negotiate with Kibaki unless he resigned, because to do so would mean acknowledging Kibaki's legitimacy; he also said that, unless stopped, the "ruling clique" could rig the next elections in five years as well, and that he was not afraid of being arrested, having been jailed many times in the past.[55] For his part, Kibaki emphasised the importance of peace, stability, and tolerance in his 2008 New Year's message, speaking of the elections as a concluded event and warning that law-breakers would be punished.[56]

Mwai KibakiParty of National Unity4,584,72146.42
Raila OdingaOrange Democratic Movement4,352,99344.07
Kalonzo MusyokaOrange Democratic Movement–Kenya879,9038.91
Joseph KaraniKenya Patriotic Trust Party21,1710.21
Pius MuiruKenya Peoples' Party9,6670.10
Nazlin OmarWorkers Congress Party of Kenya8,6240.09
Kenneth MatibaSaba Saba Asili8,0460.08
David Waweru Ng'etheChama Cha Uma5,9760.06
Nixon KukuboRepublican Party of Kenya5,9270.06
Registered voters/turnout14,296,180
Source: African Elections Database

National Assembly[]

Preliminary results showed that Vice-President Moody Awori and Wangari Maathai both lost their seats. Other notable politicians with the same fate included Mutahi Kagwe, Musikari Kombo, Simeon Nyachae, Nicholas Biwott, Chris Murungaru, Mukhisa Kituyi, Raphael Tuju, , Njenga Karume and Gideon Moi, the son of former president Daniel arap Moi.[57][58][59][60]

The elections were cancelled in Kamukunji and .[61]

Orange Democratic Movement2,973,41530.8399New
Party of National Unity2,014,41320.8943New
Orange Democratic Movement–Kenya633,8806.5716New
Kenya African National Union613,8646.3615−49
National Rainbow Coalition328,9453.413
Democratic Party237,2052.462−37
Kenya African Democratic Development Union190,0511.971
Kenya National Democratic Alliance162,5381.691+1
Sisi Kwa Sisi149,9331.5520
Chama Cha Uzalendo115,2431.192
United Democratic Movement107,8311.121+1
Mazingira Green Party of Kenya95,2270.991+1
New Ford Kenya88,5620.922New
Party of Independent Candidates of Kenya85,3480.882+2
National Labour Party51,8870.541
The Independent Party50,7970.530
Social Democratic Party39,8710.4100
Kenya National Congress39,8400.4100
Party of Hope35,9620.370
National Patriotic Party of Kenya33,2890.350
Labour Party of Kenya33,0080.340
Republican Alliance Party of Kenya31,3310.320
Agano Party30,0850.310
New Sisi Kwa Sisi Kenya28,8930.300
Chama Cha Mwananchi27,4380.280
Forum for Republican Party26,3330.270
United Democratic Party of Kenya23,8700.250
Green African Party20,0380.210
Dynamic Development Party19,9720.210
United Democrats of Peace And Integrity in Kenya19,6480.200
Community Development Party18,9940.200
Farmers Party18,9850.200
Federal Party of Kenya17,4910.180
Peoples Democratic Party15,6550.161+1
National Integrity Party15,4430.160
Republican Liberty Party15,3790.160
Shirikisho Party of Kenya15,2280.160
New Democrats14,9860.160
Peoples Party of Kenya14,8920.151+1
Peoples' Solidarity Union of Kenya14,3150.150
New Revival Generation Party14,3020.150
United People's Congress12,7500.130
Pambazuka Party of Kenya12,3900.130
Kenya Citizens Congress12,3470.130
Growth and Development Party11,7860.120
Social Party for Advancement and Reforms – Kenya11,7640.120
National Democratic Alliance11,3570.120
Kenya Social Congress11,2230.1200
Liberal Democratic Movement10,8860.110
Republican Party of Kenya10,4940.110
Generation Alliance Party of Kenya9,8080.100
Daraja Ya Wakenya Party9,7190.100
National Alliance Party9,1120.090
Saba Saba Asili8,3010.090
Kifagio Party of Kenya8,1060.080
Progressive Party of Kenya8,0810.080
Kenya People's Party8,0670.080
Chama Cha Uma Party7,3670.080
New Kanu Alliance Party of Kenya7,0100.070
Mass Party of Kenya6,6000.070
National Progressive Party6,1060.060
Vipa Progressive Alliance5,6520.060
Common Wealth Development Party of Kenya5,5730.060
Workers Congress Party of Kenya5,3860.060
New Aspiration Party5,1720.050
Democratic Representative Party5,0200.050
Kenya Affiliated Democratic Unity4,5310.050
Kenya Nationalist Peoples Democratic Party4,0990.040
Freedom Party of Kenya3,7950.040
Movement for Democratic Advancement Party of Kenya2,4960.030
Citizen Democratic Party of Kenya2,4850.030
Democratic Labour Party of Kenya2,4390.030
Communal Democracy Party of Kenya2,3470.020
National Dynamic Development Party2,2520.020
National Renewal People's Party2,0090.020
Kenya Patriotic Trust Party1,8780.020
The National Integration Party of Kenya1,7990.020
Kenya Union of National Alliance of Peace1,4570.020
National Party of Kenya1,3390.010
Chama Cha Muafaka Na Mwangaza1,2500.010
Democracy Assistance Party1,2200.010
National Liberation Party1,0890.010
National Conservative Party of Kenya1,0810.010
Chama Cha Utu9850.010
Allied Democratic Party of Kenya9760.010
Alliance for the Restoration of Democracy in Kenya9230.010
Kenya National Liberation Party8980.010
Moral Integrity Party8850.010
Party for Economic Change And Democracy8790.010
The Nuru Party8320.010
Green Social Democratic Party of Kenya7060.010
Kenya Cultural Alliance6990.010
National Star Party of Kenya6910.010
Social Welfare Alliance Party of Kenya6200.010
Wakulima Party of Kenya5980.010
Jubilee Peoples Party of Kenya5470.010
Muungano Party5170.010
Pan Africa Assemblies4750.000
Reform Party of Kenya3900.000
Forum for Orange Democratic Change Party3180.000
Peoples Patriotic Party of Kenya3010.000
Democratic Community Party2330.000
Restoration Democrats of Kenya2190.000
Universal Democratic Party of Kenya2040.000
Kenya Political Caucus Party of Kenya2030.000
Kenya Peoples Convention Party1810.000
The National Republican Party of Kenya1720.000
Kenya Republican Reformation Party760.000
Movement for Democratic Advancement Party620.000
Union of Democratic Party500.000
United Party of Democracy460.000
Source: IDE


Kibaki, of the Kikuyu tribe, and Odinga, of the Luo tribe, were supported by the two largest ethnic groups in Kenya. Fifteen minutes after Kibaki was announced president, Luo began violent attacks on Kikuyu. Slums were the first places affected by the political outrage, with hundreds of Kikuyu homes burned and Kikuyu families forced to grab their belongings and flee. Within a day, nearly all businesses were closed and the usually bustling streets of Nairobi were empty. During January and February 2008, hundreds of thousands of people were displaced from their homes, and more than 1,000 people died from the post-election violence. Crime exploded in densely-populated areas, such as Luoland, settlements in the Rift Valley, and intra-urban slums in Mombasa. In Kisumu and parts of Nairobi, the streets saw constant rioting until the end of January. Farms were looted and roads were blocked, leaving people unable to work, farmers and commuters alike. Many members of large ethnic groups attacked anyone whom they felt didn't belong; minorities and people that had come from other countries were common targets. Some people even fled to Uganda and other nearby countries to escape the social unrest. One sector greatly affected by the political unrest was tourism; flights and tours were cancelled, companies withdrew from Kenya, and many people lost their job due to lay-offs. The international media covered the tragedies extensively, giving the outside world the impression that the entire country was amidst a bloody battle, when truly, parts of Kenya were untouched by violence. The loss Kenya suffered from the lack of visitation equals approximately $47.6 million.[62] The fragile state of the economy affected surrounding countries as well.

After being sworn in as President, Kibaki named a partial cabinet on 8 January 2008, composed of 17 MPs from his party PNU and ODM–Kenya which entered into a coalition agreement, along with KANU. A number of further cabinet slots were left temporarily open, presumably to give space for negotiations with the opposition ODM, which immediately challenged the constitutionality of the new government.

On 10 December 2020, a high court orders the government to compensate four victims of sexual attacks by security agents during post-election violence during violence following the 2007 Kenyan general election.[63]

Position Minister
Vice-President Stephen Kalonzo Musyoka
Minister for Home Affairs
Minister of State for Defence Mohamed Yusuf Haji
Minister of State for Provincial Administration and Internal Security
Minister for Education Sam Ongeri
Minister for Energy Kiraitu Murungi
Minister for Finance Amos Kimunya
Minister for Foreign Affairs Moses Wetangula
Minister for Information and Communications Samuel Poghisio
Minister for Justice and Constitutional Affairs Martha Karua
Minister for Local Government Uhuru Kenyatta
Minister for Public Service Asman Kamama
Minister for Roads and Public Works John Michuki
Minister for Science and Technology Noah Wekesa
Minister of State for Special Programmes Naomi Shaban
Minister for the East African Community Wilfred Machage
Minister for Transport Chirau Ali Mwakwere
Minister for Water and Irrigation John Munyes

By March 2008, the country was starting to recover and by April, it was stable. Kibaki remained President and Odinga was named Prime Minister. The National Assembly results were cancelled in three of the 210 constituencies. Prior to 2007, hostility surrounding politics in Kenya existed on a much smaller scale. In 1991, when multi-party politics was introduced, violence became known as an election-time tradition. However, the fighting and aggression demonstrated in December 2007 and January and February 2008 was and has been unmatched by any election-related uprising. In August 2012, the Nakuru County Peace Accord was signed, a treaty designed to address sources of ethnic conflict and violence in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

See also[]


  1. ^ ECK sets poll date as Raila maintains lead The Standard, 26 October 2007
  2. ^ Dozens dead in Kenya poll clashes BBC News, 31 December 2007
  3. ^ Protests as Kenya's president begins 2nd term after allegations of rigging, deadly violence Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 31 December 2007
  4. ^ Election had its bright side despite the gloom The Standard, 14 January 2008
  5. ^ Kenya election was rigged, U.S. envoy says CTV, 7 January 2008
  6. ^ US-funded exit poll says Raila won elections The Nation, 11 July 2008
  7. ^ Kibaki declares he is ready for a second presidential term The Standard, 27 January 2007
  8. ^ Kenyan president announces new party affiliation for re-election bid Associated Press, 16 September 2007
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b Kenya president eyes re-election BBC News, 16 September 2007
  10. ^ ODM’s long and bumpy journey[permanent dead link] The Standard, 7 October 2007
  11. ^ Raila to President: Spare me the blame, I was in your Cabinet for only three years Daily Nation, 20 October 2007
  12. ^ Q&A: Kenya political crisis BBC News, 8 December 2007
  13. ^ No Let-Up in Kanu Row Over ODM Archived 7 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine Daily Nation, 17 November 2006
  14. ^ Moi throws weight behind Kibaki BBC News, 28 August 2007
  15. ^ Ex-rival backs Kibaki re-election BBC News, 14 September 2007
  16. ^ "It's make or break as ODM leaders start forum to decide on candidate", Daily Nation, 11 January 2007
  17. ^ Kenya's Opposition Chooses Presidential Candidate VOA News, 31 August 2007
  18. ^ Kenya: Kalonzo Picked to Hoist ODM-K Flag The Nation, 1 September 2007
  19. ^ Kenya: It's Raila for President East Africa Standard, 1 September 2007
  20. ^ Nine to fight it out as Kibaki cleared The Standard, 16 November 2007
  21. ^ Jump up to: a b c d The ECK final list Archived 22 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Standard, 29 November 2007
  22. ^ Curtain falls on Ninth Parliament The Standard, 23 October 2007
  23. ^ ECK and parties in nominations deal Archived 22 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Daily Nation, 6 November 2007
  24. ^ Chaos mars Kenyan party primaries BBC News, 20 November 2007
  25. ^ Upset in Kenyan primaries News24, 18 November 2007
  26. ^ Kibaki: I deserve another term Archived 12 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine AFP, 30 September 2007
  27. ^ ODM party launches its Presidential campaigns Archived 12 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine Kenya Broadcasting Corporation, 6 October 2007
  28. ^ Jump up to: a b Kenya opposition kicks off campaign, says 3 supporters shot Associated Press, 6 October 2007
  29. ^ Bishop tells voters to send off Kibaki and his team The Standard, 22 October 2007
  30. ^ Kenyan presidential hopeful gains favour AFP, 12 October 2007
  31. ^ Jump up to: a b c d 2,600 candidates in battle for MPs’ seats[permanent dead link] Daily Nation, 29 November 2007
  32. ^ Kenya: Could the president be ousted? The Economist, 1 November 2007
  33. ^ Kibaki neck-and-neck with challenger Reuters, 23 November 2007
  34. ^ Early results show Kibaki trailing in Kenya vote Reuters, 28 December 2007
  35. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Disputed Vote Plunges Kenya Into Bloodshed The New York Times, 31 December 2007
  36. ^ Jump up to: a b "Kenya opposition declares victory AFP, 29 December 2007
  37. ^ Kenya: Raila Calls for Vote Recount The East African Standard, 30 December 2007
  38. ^ Kenyan police try to block opposition rally Archived 11 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Reuters, 3 January 2008
  39. ^ Jump up to: a b c Kibaki named victor in Kenya vote BBC News, 20 December 2007
  40. ^ Kenyans riot after 'rigged' election AFP, 31 December 2007
  41. ^ Tribal violence breaks out in Kenya over disputed election result International Herald Tribune, 30 December 2007
  42. ^ Incumbent Declared Winner in Kenya's Disputed Election The Washington Post, 31 December 2007
  43. ^ Kenya election results expected today SABC News, 30 December 2007
  44. ^ Kibaki re-elected as president of Kenya Archived 11 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Reuters, 30 December 2008
  45. ^ Jump up to: a b c Odinga rejects Kenya poll result BBC News, 31 December 2007
  46. ^ Kenya election riots leave more than 120 dead The Daily Telegraph, 31 December 2007
  47. ^ US in Diplomatic Push to End Kenya Violence Archived 6 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine VOA News, 2 January 2007
  48. ^ "FOIA Release DOC NO C17443900 JANUARY 2008". Kenyadocex.com. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  49. ^ "US Embassy: Was the election stolen?". Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  50. ^ I acted under a pressure, says Kivuitu East Africa Standard, 2 January 2008
  51. ^ Kenya: Violence Erupts After Kibaki Sworn in The Nation, 30 December 2007
  52. ^ Kenya: Death and Chaos After Kibaki Win The Nation, 31 December 2007
  53. ^ Kenya: Police Claim Shoot To Kill Orders Associated Press, 31 December 2007
  54. ^ Will Kenya's Vote Lead to Tribal War? Time, 31 December 2007
  55. ^ Raila’s terms for talks with Kibaki on crisis Archived 22 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Daily Nation, 1 January 2008
  56. ^ Kibaki warns law breakers of stern action Archived 22 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Daily Nation, 1 January 2008
  57. ^ Parliamentary preliminary results Archived 4 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine Kenya Broadcasting corporation, 28 December 2007
  58. ^ VP, Ministers lose parliamentary seats The Standard, 28 December 2007
  59. ^ 'Rattler' John Michuki Survives in Kangema but Newton Kulundu falls in Western Kenya London News, 28 December 2007
  60. ^ President’s powerful lieutenants lose seats The Standard, 29 December 2007
  61. ^ Changing standing orders should top agenda as Parliament convenes Archived 16 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine Daily Nation, 9 January 2008
  62. ^ Lafargue, Jerome (2009). General Election in Kenya, 2007. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki Na Nyota.
  63. ^ "Kenya to compensate rape victims from violence 13 years ago". Associated Press. 10 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
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