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Bharatiya Janata Party

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Bharatiya Janata Party
PresidentJagat Prakash Nadda[1]
General SecretaryB. L. Santhosh
Shiv Prakash[2]
PresidiumNational Executive[3]
Parliamentary ChairpersonNarendra Modi
(Prime Minister)
Lok Sabha leaderNarendra Modi
(Prime Minister)[4]
Rajya Sabha leaderPiyush Goyal
(Union Cabinet Ministers)
TreasurerRajesh Agarwal[5]
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee
  • L. K. Advani[6]
Founded6 April 1980 (41 years ago) (1980-04-06)[7]
Split fromJanata Party[7]
Preceded by
  • Bharatiya Jana Sangh (1951–1977)[7]
  • Janata Party (1977–1980)[7]
Headquarters6-A, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Marg,
New Delhi-110002[8]
NewspaperKamal Sandesh[9]
Think tankPublic Policy Research Centre[10][11]
Student wingAkhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad
Youth wingBharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha[13]
Women's wingBJP Mahila Morcha[14]
Labour wingBharatiya Mazdoor Sangh[15]
Peasant's wingBharatiya Kisan Sangh[16]
MembershipIncrease180 million (2019)[17]
Integral humanism[19]
Social conservatism[20]
Right-wing populism[22]

Political positionRight-wing[23]
International affiliation
Colours  Saffron[27]
SloganThe Party with a Difference
ECI StatusNational Party[28]
Seats in Lok Sabha
300 / 543
(540 MPs & 3 Vacant)[32]
Seats in Rajya Sabha
94 / 245
(237 MPs & 8 Vacant)[33][34]
Seats in State Legislative Assemblies
1,435 / 4,036

(3987 MLAs & 49 Vacant)

(see complete list)
Seats in State Legislative Councils
117 / 426

(403 MLCs & 23 Vacant)

(see complete list)
Number of states and union territories in government
17 / 31
(28 states & 3 UTs)[35]
Election symbol
Lotos flower symbol.svg
Party flag
BJP flag.svg

The Bharatiya Janata Party (pronounced [bʱaːɾət̪iːjə dʒənət̪aː paːrtiː] (About this soundlisten); English: Indian People's Party; abbr. BJP) is one of two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.[37] It has been the ruling political party of the Republic of India since 2014.[38] The BJP is a right-wing party, and its policy has historically reflected Hindu nationalist positions.[39][40] It has close ideological and organisational links to the much older Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS).[41] As of 2020, it is the country's largest political party in terms of representation in the national parliament and state assemblies and is by far the world's largest party in terms of primary membership.[42][43][44] Its principle opposition, the Congress Party, is a distant second in India with 20 million members.[45]

The BJP's origin lies in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, formed in 1951 by Shyama Prasad Mukherjee.[46] After the State of Emergency in 1977, the Jana Sangh merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party; it defeated the incumbent Congress party in the 1977 general election. After three years in power, the Janata party dissolved in 1980 with the members of the erstwhile Jana Sangh reconvening to form the BJP. Although initially unsuccessful, winning only two seats in the 1984 general election, it grew in strength on the back of the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. Following victories in several state elections and better performances in national elections, the BJP became the largest party in the parliament in 1996; however, it lacked a majority in the lower house of Parliament, and its government lasted only 13 days.[47]

After the 1998 general election, the BJP-led coalition known as the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee formed a government that lasted for a year. Following fresh elections, the NDA government, again headed by Vajpayee, lasted for a full term in office; this was the first non-Congress government to do so. In the 2004 general election, the NDA suffered an unexpected defeat, and for the next ten years the BJP was the principal opposition party. Long time Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi led it to a landslide victory in the 2014 general election. Since that election, Modi has led the NDA government as Prime Minister and as of February 2019, the alliance governs 18 states.

The official ideology of the BJP is integral humanism, first formulated by Deendayal Upadhyaya in 1965. The party expresses a commitment to Hindutva, and its policy has historically reflected Hindu nationalist positions. The BJP advocates social conservatism and a foreign policy centred on nationalist principles. Its key issues have included the abrogation of the special status to Jammu and Kashmir, the building of a Ram Temple in Ayodhya and the implementation of a uniform civil code. However, the 1998–2004 NDA government did not pursue any of these controversial issues. It instead focused on a largely liberal economic policy prioritising globalisation and economic growth over social welfare.[48] During BJP's rule, India experienced significant democratic backsliding.[49][50]



Bharatiya Jana Sangh (1951–77)

The BJP's origins lie in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, popularly known as the Jana Sangh, founded by Syama Prasad Mukherjee in 1951 in response to the politics of the dominant Congress party. It was founded in collaboration with the Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), and was widely regarded as the political arm of the RSS.[51] The Jana Sangh's aims included the protection of India's "Hindu" cultural identity, in addition to countering what it perceived to be the appeasement of Muslim people and the country of Pakistan by the Congress party and then-Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The RSS loaned several of its leading pracharaks, or full-time workers, to the Jana Sangh to get the new party off the ground. Prominent among these was Deendayal Upadhyaya, who was appointed General Secretary. The Jana Sangh won only three Lok Sabha seats in the first general elections in 1952. It maintained a minor presence in parliament until 1967.[52][53]

Portrait of Syama Prasad Mookerjee, founder of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh

The Jana Sangh's first major campaign, begun in early 1953, centred on a demand for the complete integration of Jammu and Kashmir into India.[54] Mookerjee was arrested in May 1953 for violating orders from the state government restraining him from entering Kashmir. He died of a heart attack the following month, while still in jail.[54] Mauli Chandra Sharma was elected to succeed Mookerjee; however, he was forced out of power by the RSS activists within the party, and the leadership went instead to Upadhyaya. Upadhyay remained the General Secretary until 1967, and worked to build a committed grassroots organisation in the image of the RSS. The party minimised engagement with the public, focusing instead on building its network of propagandists. Upadhyaya also articulated the philosophy of integral humanism, which formed the official doctrine of the party.[55] Younger leaders, such as Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani also became involved with the leadership in this period, with Vajpayee succeeding Upadhyaya as president in 1968. The major themes on the party's agenda during this period were legislating a uniform civil code, banning cow slaughter and abolishing the special status given to Jammu and Kashmir.[56]

After assembly elections across the country in 1967, the party entered into a coalition with several other parties, including the Swatantra Party and the socialists. It formed governments in various states across the Hindi heartland, including Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. It was the first time the Jana Sangh held political office, albeit within a coalition; this caused the shelving of the Jana Sangh's more radical agenda.[57]

Janata Party (1977–80)

In 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi imposed a state of emergency. The Jana Sangh took part in the widespread protests, with thousands of its members being imprisoned along with other agitators across the country. In 1977, the emergency was withdrawn and general elections were held. The Jana Sangh merged with parties from across the political spectrum, including the Socialist Party, the Congress (O) and the Bharatiya Lok Dal to form the Janata Party, with its main agenda being defeating Indira Gandhi.[53]

The Janata Party won a majority in 1977 and formed a government with Morarji Desai as Prime Minister. The former Jana Sangh contributed the largest tally to the Janata Party's parliamentary contingent, with 93 seats or 31% of its strength. Vajpayee, previously the leader of the Jana Sangh, was appointed the Minister of External Affairs.[58]

The national leadership of the former Jana Sangh consciously renounced its identity, and attempted to integrate with the political culture of the Janata Party, based on Gandhian and Hindu traditionalist principles. According to Christophe Jaffrelot, this proved to be impossible assimilation.[59] The state and local levels of the Jana Sangh remained relatively unchanged, retaining a strong association with the RSS, which did not sit well with the moderate centre-right constituents of the Party.[60] Violence between Hindus and Muslims increased sharply during the years that the Janata Party formed the government, with former Jana Sangha members being implicated in the riots at Aligarh and Jamshedpur in 1978–79. The other major constituents of the Janata Party demanded that the Jana Sangh should break from the RSS, which the Jana Sangh refused to do. Eventually, a fragment of the Janata Party broke off to form the Janata Party (Secular). The Morarji Desai government was reduced to a minority in the Parliament, forcing its resignation. Following a brief period of coalition rule, general elections were held in 1980, in which the Janata Party fared poorly, winning only 31 seats. In April 1980, shortly after the elections, the National Executive Council of the Janata Party banned its members from being 'dual members' of party and the RSS. In response, the former Jana Sangh members left to create a new political party, known as the Bharatiya Janata Party. [61][58]

BJP (1980–present)

Atal Bihari Vajpayee.jpg
Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the first Prime Minister from BJP (Left), Lal Krishna Advani, deputy Prime Minister under Vajpayee and one of the architects of the Ram Janmabhoomi movement (Right)

Formation and early days

Although the newly formed BJP was technically distinct from the Jana Sangh, the bulk of its rank and file were identical to its predecessor, with Vajpayee being its first president.[62] Historian Ramachandra Guha writes that the early 1980s were marked by a wave of violence between Hindus and Muslims. The BJP initially moderated the Hindu nationalist stance of its predecessor the Jana Sangh to gain a wider appeal, emphasising its links to the Janata Party and the ideology of Gandhian Socialism.[63] This was unsuccessful, as it won only two Lok Sabha seats in the elections of 1984.[63] The assassination of Indira Gandhi a few months earlier resulted in a wave of support for the Congress which won a record tally of 403 seats, contributing to the low number for the BJP.[64]

Ram Janmabhoomi movement

Ram Rath Yatra

The failure of Vajpayee's moderate strategy led to a shift in the ideology of the party toward a policy of more hardline Hindu nationalism.[63][65] In 1984, Advani was appointed president of the party, and under him it became the political voice of the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. In the early 1980s, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) began a campaign for the construction of a temple dedicated to the Hindu deity Rama at the disputed site of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya. The mosque had been constructed by the Mughal Emperor Babur in 1527. There is a dispute about whether a temple once stood there.[66] The agitation was on the basis of the belief that the site is the birthplace of Rama, and that a temple had been demolished to construct the mosque.[67] The BJP threw its support behind this campaign and made it a part of their election platform. It won 86 Lok Sabha seats in 1989, a tally which made its support crucial to the National Front government of V. P. Singh.[68]

In September 1990, Advani began a rath yatra (chariot journey) to Ayodhya in support of the Ram temple movement. According to Guha, the imagery employed by the yatra was "religious, allusive, militant, masculine, and anti-Muslim", and the speeches delivered by Advani during the yatra accused the government of appeasing Muslims and practising "pseudo-secularism" that obstructed the legitimate aspirations of Hindus.[69] Advani defended the yatra, stating that it had been free of the incident from Somnath to Ayodhya, and that the English media were to blame for the violence that followed.[70] Advani was placed under preventive detention on the orders of the then Bihar chief minister Lalu Prasad Yadav. A large number of kar sevaks nonetheless converged at Ayodhya. On the orders of Uttar Pradesh chief minister Mulayam Singh Yadav, 150,000 of them were detained, yet half as many managed to reach Ayodhya and some attacked the mosque. Three days of fighting with the paramilitary forces ended with the deaths of several kar sevaks. Hindus were urged by VHP to "take revenge" for these deaths, resulting in riots against Muslims across Uttar Pradesh. [71] The BJP withdrew its support from the V.P. Singh government, leading to fresh general elections. It once again increased its tally, to 120 seats, and won a majority in the Uttar Pradesh assembly.[72]

On 6 December 1992, the RSS and its affiliates organised a rally involving more than 100,000 VHP and BJP activists at the site of the mosque.[72] Under circumstances that are not entirely clear, the rally developed into a frenzied attack that ended with the demolition of the mosque.[72] Over the following weeks, waves of violence between Hindus and Muslims erupted all over the country, killing over 2,000 people.[72] The government briefly banned the VHP, and many BJP leaders, including Advani were arrested for making inflammatory speeches provoking the demolition.[73][74] Several historians have said that the demolition was the product of a conspiracy by the Sangh Parivar, and not a spontaneous act.[72]

A 2009 report, authored by Justice Manmohan Singh Liberhan, found that 68 people were responsible for the demolition, mostly leaders from the BJP.[74] Among those named were Vajpayee, Advani, and Murli Manohar Joshi. The report also criticised Kalyan Singh, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh during the demolition.[74] He was accused of posting bureaucrats and police officers who would stay silent during the demolition.[74] Anju Gupta, an Indian Police Service officer in charge of Advani's security, appeared as a prominent witness before the commission. She said that Advani and Joshi made provocative speeches that were a major factor in the mob's behaviour.[75] However in a Judgement on 30 September 2020,the Supreme Court of India acquitted all of the accused in the demolition including Advani and Joshi.[76]

In the parliamentary elections in 1996, the BJP capitalised on the communal polarisation that followed the demolition to win 161 Lok Sabha seats, making it the largest party in parliament.[47] Vajpayee was sworn in as Prime Minister but was unable to attain a majority in the Lok Sabha, forcing the government to resign after 13 days.[47]

NDA government (1998–2004)

A coalition of regional parties formed the government in 1996, but this grouping was short-lived, and mid-term polls were held in 1998. The BJP contested the elections leading a coalition called the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), which contained its existing allies like the Samata Party, the Shiromani Akali Dal, the Shiv Sena in addition to the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) and the Biju Janata Dal. Among these regional parties, the Shiv Sena was the only one that had an ideology similar to the BJP; Amartya Sen, for example, called the coalition an "ad hoc" grouping.[77][78] The NDA had a majority with outside support from the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) and Vajpayee returned as Prime Minister.[79] However, the coalition ruptured in May 1999 when the leader of AIADMK, Jayalalitha, withdrew her support, and fresh elections were held again.[80]

On 13 October 1999, the NDA, without the AIADMK, won 303 seats in parliament and thus an outright majority. The BJP had its highest ever tally of 183. Vajpayee became Prime Minister for the third time; Advani became Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister. This NDA government lasted its full term of five years. Its policy agenda included a more aggressive stance on defence and terror as well as neo-liberal economic policies.[48]

In 2001, Bangaru Laxman, then the BJP president, was filmed accepting a bribe of 100,000 (equivalent to 340,000 or US$4,500 in 2020)[81] to recommend the purchase of hand-held thermal imagers for the Indian Army to the Defence Ministry, in a sting operation by Tehelka journalists.[82][83] The BJP was forced to make him resign and he was subsequently prosecuted. In April 2012, he was sentenced to four years in prison.[84]

2002 Gujarat violence

On 27 February 2002, a train carrying Hindu pilgrims was burned outside the town of Godhra, killing 59 people. The incident was seen as an attack upon Hindus, and sparked off massive anti-Muslim violence across the state of Gujarat that lasted several weeks.[85] The death toll estimated was as high as 2000, while 150,000 were displaced.[86] Rape, mutilation, and torture were also widespread.[86][87] The then-Gujarat chief minister Narendra Modi and several high-ranking government officials were accused of initiating and condoning the violence, as were police officers who allegedly directed the rioters and gave them lists of Muslim-owned properties.[88] In April 2009, a Special Investigation Team (SIT) was appointed by the Supreme Court to investigate and expedite the Gujarat riots cases. In 2012, Modi was cleared of complicity in the violence by the SIT and BJP MLA Maya Kodnani, who later held a cabinet portfolio in the Modi government, was convicted of having orchestrated one of the riots and sentenced to 28 years imprisonment;[89][90] she was later acquitted by the Gujarat High Court.[91] Scholars such as Paul Brass, Martha Nussbaum and Dipankar Gupta have said that there was a high level of state complicity in the incidents.[92][93][94]

General election defeats

Vajpayee called for early elections in 2004, six months ahead of schedule. The NDA's campaign was based on the slogan "India Shining", which sought to depict it as responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country.[95] However, the NDA unexpectedly suffered a heavy defeat, winning only 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the Congress and its allies. Manmohan Singh succeeded Vajpayee as Prime Minister as the head of the United Progressive Alliance. The NDA's failure to reach out to rural Indians was provided as an explanation for its defeat, as was its divisive policy agenda.[95][96]

In May 2008, the BJP won the state elections in Karnataka. This was the first time that the party won assembly elections in any South Indian state. In the 2009 general elections, its strength in the Lok Sabha was reduced to 116 seats. It lost the Karnataka assembly election in 2013.[97]

NDA government (2014–present)

Narendra Modi became the Prime Minister of India, following the 2014 Indian general election.

In the 2014 Indian general election, the BJP won 282 seats, leading the NDA to a tally of 336 seats in the 543-seat Lok Sabha.[98] Narendra Modi was sworn in as the 14th Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014.[99][100]

The vote share of the BJP was 31% of all votes cast, a low figure relative to the number of seats it won.[101] This was the first instance since 1984 of a single party achieving an outright majority in the Indian Parliament[102] and the first time that it achieved a majority in the Lok Sabha on its own strength. Support was concentrated in the Hindi-speaking belt in North-central India.[101] The magnitude of the victory was not predicted by most opinion and exit polls.[101]

Political analysts have suggested several reasons for this victory, including the popularity of Modi, and the loss of support for the Congress due to the corruption scandals in its previous term.[103] The BJP was also able to expand its traditionally upper-caste, upper-class support base and received significant support from middle-class and Dalit people, as well as among Other Backward Classes.[104][101] Its support among Muslims remained low; only 8% of Muslim voters voted for the BJP.[104][101] The BJP was also very successful at mobilising its supporters and raising voter turnout among them.[101]

In 2019, the BJP won the general election with a majority. Soon after coming to power, on 5 August 2019, the Modi administration revoked the special status, or limited autonomy, granted under Article 370 of the Indian Constitution to Jammu and Kashmir—a region administered by India as a state and this states consists of the larger part of Kashmir which has been the subject of dispute among India, Pakistan, and China since 1947.[105][106]

Later in 2019, the Modi government introduced the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019, which was passed by the Parliament of India on 11 December 2019. It amended the Citizenship Act, 1955 by providing a path to Indian citizenship for illegal immigrant of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities, who had fled persecution from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan before December 2014.[107][108] Muslims from those countries were not given such eligibility.[109] The act was the first time religion had been overtly used as a criterion for citizenship under Indian law.[109][a][b][c]

General election results

The electoral history of the BJP and its predecessors in general elections

The Bharatiya Janata Party was officially founded in 1980, and the first general election it contested was in 1984, in which it won only two Lok Sabha seats. Following the election in 1996, the BJP became the largest party in the Lok Sabha for the first time, but the government it formed was short-lived.[47] In the elections of 1998 and 1999, it remained the largest party, and headed the ruling coalition on both occasions.[48] In the 2014 general election, it won an outright majority in parliament. From 1991 onwards, a BJP member has led the Opposition whenever the party was not in power.[110][d]

Lok Sabha seats

Year Legislature Party leader Seats won Change in seats Percentage
of votes
Vote swing Outcome Ref.
1984 8th Lok Sabha Lal Krishna Advani
2 / 543
Increase 2 7.74% Opposition [111]
1989 9th Lok Sabha
85 / 543
Increase 83 11.36% Increase 3.62% Outside support for NF [112]
1991 10th Lok Sabha
120 / 543
Increase 35 20.11% Increase 8.75% Opposition [113]
1996 11th Lok Sabha Atal Bihari Vajpayee
161 / 543
Increase 41 20.29% Increase 0.18% Government, later opposition [114]
1998 12th Lok Sabha
182 / 543
Increase 21 25.59% Increase 5.30% Government [115]
1999 13th Lok Sabha
182 / 543
Steady 23.75% Decrease 1.84% Government [116]
2004 14th Lok Sabha
138 / 543
Decrease 44 22.16% Decrease 1.69% Opposition [117]
2009 15th Lok Sabha Lal Krishna Advani
116 / 543
Decrease 22 18.80% Decrease 3.36% Opposition [118]
2014 16th Lok Sabha Narendra Modi
282 / 543
Increase 166 31.34% Increase 12.54% Government [119]
2019 17th Lok Sabha
303 / 543
Increase 21 37.46% Increase 6.12% Government [120][121]

Rajya Sabha seats

Number of BJP upper house seats per year

Presence in states and UTs

Current ruling parties in India
  •   BJP (12)
  •   Coalition with BJP (6)
  •   INC (3)
  •   Coalition with INC (3)
  •   Other Parties (AAP, AITC, BJD, CPI(M), TRS, YSRCP) (6)
  •   No legislature

As of July 2021, the BJP holds a majority of Legislative Assembly in 10 states – Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Further, BJP has a coalition government in 7 states/ union territories – Bihar, Haryana, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Puducherry and Sikkim.

Legislative assembly results

Year State/UT Won/Total seats Won % (of Seats) Vote % LS.19 vote% G/ Op
TBD J & K* N/A (90) * * 46.4 *
2021 Assam
60 / 126
48% 33.21 36 G
0 / 140
0% 11.3 13 O
6 / 30
20% 13.66 0 G
Tamil Nadu
4 / 234
2% 2.62 3.7 O
West Bengal
77 / 294
26% 38.13 40.7 O
2020 Bihar
74 / 243
30% 19.46 23.6 G
8 / 70
11% 38.51 56.6 O
2019 Andhra Pradesh
0 / 175
0% 0.84 1 O
Arunachal Pradesh
41 / 60
68% 50.86 58.2 G
40 / 90
44% 36.49 58 G
25 / 81
32% 33.37 51 O
105 / 288
37% 25.75 27.6 O
23 / 147
16% 32.49 38.4 O
0 / 32
0% 1.62 4.7 G
2018 Chhattisgarh
15 / 90
17% 32.97 50.7 O
104 / 224
46% 36.22 51.4 G
Madhya Pradesh
109 / 230
47% 41.02 58 G
2 / 60
3% 9.63 8 G
1 / 40
3% 8.09 5.8 G
12 / 60
20% 15.31 0 G
73 / 200
37% 38.77 58.5 O
1 / 119
1% 6.98 19.5 O
36 / 60
60% 43.59 49 G
2017 Goa
13 / 40
33% 32.48 51.2 G
99 / 182
54% 49.05 62.2 G
Himachal Pradesh
44 / 68
65% 48.79 69.1 G
21 / 60
35% 36.28 34.2 G
3 / 117
3% 5.39 9.6 O
Uttar Pradesh
312 / 403
77% 39.67 50 G
57 / 70
81% 46.51 61 G
Total India
1,433 / 4,033
36% 33.8 37.5 17
  • Bold indicates Largest Party/Vote share

Current seats in State Legislative Assemblies

Legislative Assembly
Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
0 / 175
Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
48 / 60
Assam Legislative Assembly
62 / 126
Bihar Legislative Assembly
74 / 243
Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly
14 / 90
Delhi Legislative Assembly
8 / 70
Goa Legislative Assembly
27 / 40
Gujarat Legislative Assembly
112 / 182
Haryana Legislative Assembly
40 / 90
Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
43 / 68
Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly
0 / 90
Jharkhand Legislative Assembly
26 / 81
Karnataka Legislative Assembly
121 / 224
Kerala Legislative Assembly
0 / 140
Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly
128 / 230
Maharashtra Legislative Assembly
106 / 288
Manipur Legislative Assembly
24 / 60
Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
2 / 60
Mizoram Legislative Assembly
1 / 40
Nagaland Legislative Assembly
12 / 60
Odisha Legislative Assembly
22 / 147
Puducherry Legislative Assembly
9 / 33
Punjab Legislative Assembly
2 / 117
Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
71 / 200
Sikkim Legislative Assembly
12 / 32
Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
4 / 234
Telangana Legislative Assembly
2 / 119
Tripura Legislative Assembly
35 / 60
Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
304 / 403
Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly
54 / 70
West Bengal Legislative Assembly
70 / 294

Current seats in State Legislative councils

Legislative Council
Andhra Pradesh Legislative Council
2 / 58
Bihar Legislative Council
15 / 75
Karnataka Legislative Council
32 / 75
Maharashtra Legislative Council
24 / 78
Telangana Legislative Council
0 / 40
Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council
32 / 100

Current and past seats in state legislatures

In 5 other states, Bihar, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and in the Union Territory of Puducherry it shares power as a junior partner with other political parties of the NDA coalition.

The BJP has previously been the sole party in power in Delhi, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Rajasthan. It has also ruled Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra and Punjab as part of coalition governments.

The BJP has never been in power in 3 states-Kerala, Telangana (between 1999 and 2004 BJP in alliance with TDP ruled a United Andhra Pradesh) and West Bengal.

As of July 2021, the BJP has Chief Ministers in 12 states:

In 4 other states and in the UT of Puducherry, it shares power with other political parties. In all these states, the BJP is junior ally in the ruling alliance. The states are:

In Sikkim its ally is in power but BJP MLAs haven’t joined the government as ministers.

  • Sikkim ( Sikkim Krantikari Morcha)

In the past, the BJP has also been the party in power in the following states and union territories:

  • Chhattisgarh
  • Delhi
  • Rajasthan
  • Maharashtra (with Shiv Sena)
  • Jharkhand

It has been a part of the government in the following states and union territories as a junior ally being a part of coalition governments in the past:

  • Andhra Pradesh (with Telugu Desam Party)
  • Jammu and Kashmir (with Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party)
  • Odisha (with Biju Janata Dal)
  • Punjab (with Shiromani Akali Dal)
  • Tamil Nadu (with All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam)

It has never been a part of the government in the following states:

  • Kerala
  • Telangana (However, the BJP was an ally of Telugu Desam Party which administered the Telangana region as part of Andhra Pradesh before the state was bifurcated but it didn't join the government at that time)
  • West Bengal

It also has a regional political alliance in the Northeast India named as the North-East Democratic Alliance.[122][123][124]

Ideology and political positions

Social policies and Hindutva

The official philosophy of the BJP is "Integral humanism," a philosophy first formulated by Deendayal Upadhyaya in 1965, who described it as advocating an "indigenous economic model that puts the human being at center stage."[125][126] It is committed to Hindutva, an ideology articulated by Indian independence activist Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. According to the party, Hindutva is cultural nationalism favouring Indian culture over westernisation, thus it extends to all Indians regardless of religion.[63] However, scholars and political analysts have called their Hindutva ideology an attempt to redefine India and recast it as a Hindu country to the exclusion of other religions, making it a Hindu nationalist party in a general sense.[72][63][127][128] The BJP has slightly moderated its stance after the NDA was formed in 1998, due to the presence of parties with a broader set of ideologies.[72][48]

The BJP's Hindutva ideology has been reflected in many of its government policies. It supports the construction of the Ram Temple at the disputed site of the Babri Mosque.[127] This issue was its major poll plank in the 1991 general elections.[127] However, the demolition of the mosque during a BJP rally in 1992 resulted in a backlash against it, leading to a decline of the temple's prominence in its agenda.[127] The education policy of the NDA government reorganised the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and tasked it with extensively revising the textbooks used in Indian schools.[129] Various scholars have stated that this revision, especially in the case of history textbooks, was a covert attempt to "saffronise" Indian history.[129][130][131][132] The NDA government introduced Vedic astrology as a subject in college curricula, despite opposition from several leading scientists.[133]

Taking a position against what it calls the "pseudo-secularism" of the Congress party, the BJP instead supports "positive secularism".[127] Vajpayee laid out the BJP's interpretation of Mahatma Gandhi's doctrine of Sarva Dharma Sama Bhava and contrasted it with what he called European secularism.[134] He had said that Indian secularism attempted to see all religions with equal respect, while European secularism was independent of religion, thus making the former more "positive".[135] The BJP supports a uniform civil code, which would apply a common set of personal laws to every citizen regardless of their personal religion, replacing the existing laws which vary by religious community. Historian Yogendra Malik claims this ignores the differential procedures required to protect the cultural identity of the Muslim minority.[63][127] The BJP favoured, and later enacted[136][137][138] the abrogation of Article 370 of the Constitution of India, which granted a greater degree of autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir in recognition of the unusual circumstances surrounding its accession to the Indian Union.[63]

The BJP opposes illegal immigration into India from Bangladesh.[128] The party states that this migration, mostly in the states of Assam and West Bengal, threatens the security, economy and stability of the country.[128] Academics have pointed out that the BJP refers to Hindu migrants from Bangladesh as refugees, and reserves the term "illegal" for Muslim migrants.[128] Academic Michael Gillan perceived it as an attempt to use an emotive issue to mobilise Hindu sentiment in a region where the party has not been historically successful.[128][139] The party later became the party of government in Assam.[140]

In 2013, the Supreme Court of India reinstated the controversial Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which, among other things, criminalises homosexuality. There was a popular outcry, although clerics, including Muslim religious leaders, stated that they supported the verdict.[141][142] BJP president Rajnath Singh said that the party supported Section 377, because it believed that homosexuality was unnatural,[143] though the party softened the stance after its victory in the 2014 general elections.[144] Senior party members including Arun Jaitley and Harsh Vardhan openly support the rights of gender and sexual minorities in India. Vanathi Srinivasan, a BJP leader from Tamil Nadu, launched the first book on LGBTQIA and Genderqueer in Tamil penned by Gopi Shankar Madurai.[145][146][147][148] However, other leading party figures, such as Subramanian Swamy, were strongly critical of the decision by the Supreme Court to strike down Section 377 in Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India.[149]

Economic policies

The BJP's economic policy has changed considerably since its founding. There is a significant range of economic ideologies within the party. In the 1980s, like the Jana Sangh, it reflected the thinking of the RSS and its affiliates. It supported swadeshi (the promotion of indigenous industries and products) and a protectionist export policy. However, it supported internal economic liberalisation, and opposed the state-driven industrialisation favoured by the Congress.[150]

During the 1996 elections, the BJP shifted its stance away from protectionism and towards globalisation; its election manifesto recommended increasing foreign investment in priority sectors, while restricting it in others. When the party was in power in 1998, it shifted its policy even further in favour of globalisation. The tenure of the NDA saw an unprecedented influx of foreign companies in India.[150] This was criticised by the left parties and the BJP's affiliates (the RSS and the Swadeshi Jagran Manch).[150] The communist parties said that the BJP was attempting to appease the World Bank and the United States government through its neoliberal policies.[150] Similarly, the RSS stated that the BJP was not being true to its swadeshi ideology.[150]

The two NDA governments in the period 1998–2004 introduced significant deregulation and privatisation of government-owned enterprises. It also introduced tariff-reducing measures. These reforms built off of the initial economic liberalisation introduced by the P. V. Narasimha Rao-led Congress government in the early 1990s.[151] India's GDP growth increased substantially during the tenure of the NDA. The 2004 campaign slogan India Shining was based on the party's belief that the free market would bring prosperity to all sectors of society.[152] After its unexpected defeat, commentators said that it was punished for neglecting the needs of the poor and focusing too much on its corporate allies.[95][96][153]

This shift in the economic policies of the BJP was also visible in state governments, especially in Gujarat, where the BJP held power for 16 years.[154] Modi's government, in power from 2002 to 2014, followed a strongly neo-liberal agenda, presented as a drive towards development.[155][156] Its policies have included extensive privatisation of infrastructure and services, as well as a significant rollback of labour and environmental regulations. While this was praised by the business community, commentators criticised it as catering to the BJP's upper-class constituency instead of the poor.[155]

Modi has been described as taking a more economically populist approach on healthcare and agricultural policy.[157] Modi's government has also been described as taking a more protectionist turn on international trade during his second term, withdrawing from the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership talks[158][159] and introducing the 2020 Atmanirbhar Bharat economic plan, which emphasises national self-sufficiency.[160][161] However, Foreign Minister Subrahmanyam Jaishankar has rejected accusations that Atmanirbhar Bharat is a protectionist initiative, while himself criticizing India's past free trade agreements for the "damaging impact they have had on India’s manufacturing".[162] Similarly, Vice President Venkaiah Naidu has also disputed the initiative's protectionism, instead stating that it meant "adopting a pragmatic development strategy that would enable the country to recognise and capitalise on its inherent strengths".[163]

Defence and counterterrorism

Compared to Congress, the BJP takes a more aggressive and nationalistic position on defence policy and terrorism.[164][165] The Vajpayee-led NDA government carried out nuclear weapons tests and enacted the Prevention of Terrorism Act, which later came under heavy criticism.[164][165] It also deployed troops to evict infiltrators from Kargil, and supported the United States War on Terror.[166]

Although previous Congress governments developed the capability for a nuclear weapons test, the Vajpayee government broke with India's historical strategy of avoiding it and authorised Pokhran-II, a series of five nuclear tests in 1998.[164] The tests came soon after Pakistan tested a medium-range ballistic missile. They were seen as an attempt to display India's military prowess to the world, and a reflection of anti-Pakistan sentiment within the BJP.[164]

The Vajpayee government ordered the Indian armed forces to expel the Pakistani soldiers occupying Kashmir territory, later known as the Kargil War.[167][168] Although the government was later criticised for the intelligence failures that did not detect Pakistani presence, it was successful in ousting them from the previously Indian-controlled territory.[167][168] The Vajpayee administration also offered political support to the US War on Terror, in the hope of better addressing India's issues with terrorism and insurgency in Kashmir. This led to closer defence ties with the US, including negotiations for the sale of weapons.[166]

After the terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament in December 2001, the NDA government passed the Prevention of Terrorism Act.[165] The aim of the act was to improve the government's ability to deal with terrorism.[165] It initially failed to pass in the Rajya Sabha; therefore, the NDA took the extraordinary step of convening a joint session of the Parliament, where the numerical superior Lok Sabha allowed the bill to pass.[165] The act was subsequently used to prosecute hundreds of people accused of terrorism.[165] However, it was criticised by opposition parties and scholars for being an infringement upon civil liberties, and the National Human Rights Commission of India stated that it had been used to target Muslims.[165] It was later repealed by the Congress-led UPA government in 2004.[169]

The Modi government has conducted several strikes on territory controlled by neighbouring countries on counterterrorism grounds. This included a 2015 Indian counter-insurgency operation in Myanmar against the National Socialist Council of Nagaland, the 2016 Indian Line of Control strike in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, and the 2019 Balakot airstrike in Pakistan.[170] It also militarily intervened in defence of Bhutan during the 2017 Doklam standoff with China.[171]

Foreign policy

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and U.S. President Donald Trump at the Namaste Trump rally in Ahmedabad, India on 24 February 2020

The historical stance of the BJP towards foreign policy, like the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, was based on an aggressive Hindu nationalism combined with economic protectionism.[172] The Bharatiya Jana Sangh was founded with the explicit aim of reversing the partition of India; as a result, its official position was that the existence of Pakistan was illegitimate.[172] This antagonism toward Pakistan remains a significant influence on the BJP's ideology.[172][173] During the Cold War, the party and its affiliates strongly opposed India's long standing policy of non-alignment, and instead advocated closeness to the United States.[172] In the post-Cold War era, the party has largely embraced the Indian foreign policy consensus of improving relations with the United States,[174] while stressing a desire for a more multipolar world order.[175]

The Vajpayee government's foreign policy in many ways represented a radical shift from BJP orthodoxy while maintaining some aspects of it.[150][173] Its policy also represented a significant change from the Nehruvian idealism of previous governments, opting instead for realism.[176] His party criticised him for adopting a much more moderate stance with Pakistan. In 1998, he made a landmark visit to Pakistan, and inaugurated the Delhi–Lahore Bus service.[172] Vajpayee signed the Lahore Declaration, which was an attempt to improve Indo-Pakistani relations that deteriorated after the 1998 nuclear tests.[172] However, the presence of Pakistani soldiers and militants in the disputed Kashmir territory was discovered a few months later, causing the 1999 Kargil War. The war ended a couple of months later, with the expulsion of the infiltrators two months later, without any shift in the Line of Control that marked the de facto border between the two countries.[172] Despite the war, Vajpayee continued to display a willingness to engage Pakistan in dialogue. This was not well received among the BJP cadre, who criticised the government for being "weak".[172] This faction of the BJP asserted itself at the post-Kargil Agra summit, preventing any significant deal from being reached. [172]

The Modi government initially took a pragmatic stance towards Pakistan, attempting to improve relations with Nawaz Sharif's government, culminating in Modi visiting Pakistan in 2015.[177] Relations subsequently deteriorated, particularly after Sharif was ousted in 2017.[178] The Modi government has since been described as taking a "hardline" approach on Pakistan, and the BJP has accused the opposition Congress of collaborating with Pakistan through its criticism of government policy.[179]

In 2015, the Modi government was accused by the Nepalese government of imposing an undeclared blockade on Nepal.[180]

Organisation and structure

Structure of the Bharatiya Janata Party


The organisation of the BJP is strictly hierarchical, with the president being the highest authority in the party.[126] Until 2012, the BJP constitution mandated that any qualified member could be national or state president for a single three-year term.[126] This was amended to a maximum of two consecutive terms.[181]

National Executive

Below the president is the National Executive, which contains a variable number of senior leaders from across the country. It is the higher decision making body of the party. Its members are several vice-presidents, general-secretaries, treasurers and secretaries, who work directly with the president.[126] An identical structure, with an executive committee led by a president, exists at the state, regional, district and local level.[126]

Kerala Raksha Yatra by BJP Kerala.

In April 2015, the BJP stated that it had more than 100 million registered members, which would make it the world's largest political party by primary membership.[182][183]

The BJP is a cadre-based party. It has close connections with other organisations with similar ideologies, such as the RSS, ABVP, BYSS and the VHP. The cadres of these groups often supplement the BJP's. Its lower members are largely derived from the RSS and its affiliates, loosely known as the Sangh Parivar:[126]

  • The Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (All India Students' Union), the students' wing of the RSS.[126]
  • The Bharatiya Kisan Sangh (Indian Farmer's Union), the farmers' division.[126]
  • The Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (Indian Labourers Union), the labour union associated with the RSS.[126]
  • The Bharatiya Yuva Seva Sangh (Youth Awakening Front), the Youth Awakening Front associated with the RSS.

The party has subsidiary organisations of its own, such as:

  • The BJP Mahila Morcha (BJP Women's Front), its women's division.[126]
  • The Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha (Indian People's Youth Front), its youth wing.[126]
  • The BJP Minority Morcha (BJP Minority Front), its minority division.[126]

National office bearers

The National office bearers of Bharatiya Janata Party is oversee the overall strategic direction of the party and policy development. It is composed of members appointed by the BJP president.[184]

Legislative leaders

List of prime ministers

Prime minister Portrait Term in office Lok Sabha Cabinet Constituency
Start End Tenure
1 Atal Bihari Vajpayee Atal Bihari Vajpayee 2002-06-12.jpg 16 May 1996 1 June 1996 6 years, 80 days 11th Vajpayee I Lucknow
19 March 1998 22 May 2004 12th Vajpayee II
13th Vajpayee III
2 Narendra Modi PM Modi 2015.jpg 26 May 2014 Incumbent 7 years, 172 days 16th Modi I Varanasi
17th Modi II

List of deputy prime ministers

prime minister
Portrait Term in office Lok Sabha Constituency Prime Minister
Start End Tenure
1 L. K. Advani Lkadvani.jpg 5 February 2002 22 May 2004 2 years, 107 days 13th Gandhinagar Atal Bihari Vajpayee

List of chief ministers

As of August 2021, 47 people from Bharatiya Janata Party have held the position of a chief minister, 12 of whom are incumbent.

Incumbent chief ministers from the Bharatiya Janata Party
S.№ State Name Portrait Cabinet Governing coalition
1. Arunachal Pradesh Pema Khandu Pema Khandu in July 2016.jpg Khandu II BJP (48)
NPP (4)
IND (2)
2. Assam Himanta Biswa Sarma Himanta Biswa Sarma,.jpg Sarma BJP (62)
AGP (9)
UPPL (7)
3. Goa Pramod Sawant The Chief Minister of Goa, Shri Pramod Sawant.jpg Sawant BJP (27)
IND (1)
4. Gujarat Bhupendrabhai Patel Patel BJP (112)
5. Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar Manohar Lal Khattar 2015.jpg Khattar II BJP (40)
JJP (10)
HLP (1)
IND (5)
6. Himachal Pradesh Jai Ram Thakur JRThakur.jpg Thakur BJP (43)
7. Karnataka Basavaraj Bommai Shri Basavaraj Bommai calling on the Union Minister for Defence, Shri Rajnath Singh, in New Delhi on July 30 2021.jpg Bommai BJP (121)
IND (1)
8. Madhya Pradesh Shivraj Singh Chouhan Shivraj Singh Chouhan (Cropped 3).jpg Chouhan IV BJP (128)
IND (7)
9. Manipur N. Biren Singh N. Biren Singh.jpg Singh BJP (27)
NPP (4)
NPF (4)
IND (2)
10. Tripura Biplab Kumar Deb Biplab Kumar Deb (cropped).png Deb BJP (36)
IPFT (8)
11. Uttar Pradesh Yogi Adityanath The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister, Shri Yogi Adityanath meeting the President, Shri Ram Nath Kovind, at Rashtrapati Bhavan, in New Delhi on February 10, 2018 (cropped).jpg Adityanath BJP (304)
AD(S) (9)
IND (1)
12. Uttarakhand Pushkar Singh Dhami Pushkar Singh Dhami.jpg Dhami BJP (54)
IND (2)

List of deputy chief ministers

S.№ State Name Portrait
1. Arunachal Pradesh Chowna Mein The Agriculture Minister of Arunachal Pradesh, Shri Chowna Mein calling on the Union Minister for Agriculture, Shri Radha Mohan Singh, in New Delhi on September 17, 2014 (cropped).jpg
2. Bihar Tarkishore Prasad
3. Renu Devi
4. Goa Manohar Ajgaonkar
5. Chandrakant Kavlekar
6. Nagaland Yanthungo Patton The Nagaland Home Minister, Shri Yanthungo Patton meeting the Minister of State for Home Affairs, Shri Hansraj Gangaram Ahir, in New Delhi on November 09, 2016 (cropped).jpg
7. Tripura Jishnu Dev Varma The Chief Minister of Tripura, Shri Biplab Kumar Deb and the Deputy Chief Minister, Shri Jishnu Debbarma calling on the Union Home Minister, Shri Rajnath Singh, in New Delhi on March 20, 2018 (cropped).jpg
8. Uttar Pradesh Keshav Prasad Maurya Shri Keshav Prasad Maurya (cropped).jpg
9. Dinesh Sharma Shri Dinesh Sharma (cropped).jpg

BJP legislative leaders in other states

State Name Portrait NDA or Opposition Position
Meghalaya Sanbor Shullai NDA (in government)
  • Leader of BJP Legislature Party
  • Cabinet Minister
Puducherry A. Namassivayam A. Namassivayam.png
Sikkim NDA (not in government) Leader of BJP Legislature Party
Chhatisgarh Dharamlal Kaushik Opposition
  • Leader of the Opposition
  • Leader of BJP Legislature Party
Delhi Ramvir Singh Bidhuri
Rajasthan Gulab Chand Kataria GC Kataria.jpg
Maharashtra Devendra Fadnavis Devendra Fadnavis @Vidhan Sabha 04-03-2021.jpg
Jharkhand Babulal Marandi Babulal.jpg
Odisha Pradipta Kumar Naik
West Bengal Suvendu Adhikari
Mizoram Buddha Dhan Chakma Leader of BJP Legislature Party
Punjab Dinesh Singh Dinesh Singh Official portrait 2017.jpg
Telangana T. Raja Singh
Tamil Nadu Nainar Nagendran
Andhra Pradesh No representation
Jammu and Kashmir vacant, elections pending

See also



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  2. ^ Sen (2018), pp. 10–11: "Nehru’s response [to Patel's warning] made it clear that Muslim migrants from Pakistan could not join the ranks of refugees in India... Thus, despite broad public statements promising citizenship to all displaced persons from Pakistan, Hindu migrants alone counted as citizen-refugees in post-partition India."
  3. ^ Jayal (2019), pp. 34–35: "While some elements of religious difference had... been covertly smuggled in earlier, this bill seeks to do so overtly."
  4. ^ For the electoral results of the BJP's predecessors, see the JP and BJS articles.


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Further reading

  • Ahuja, Gurdas M. (2004). Bharatiya Janata Party and Resurgent India. Ram Company.
  • Andersen, Walter K.; Damle, Shridhar D. (1987) [Originally published by Westview Press]. The Brotherhood in Saffron: The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Revivalism. Delhi: Vistaar Publications.
  • Bhambhri, C.P. (2001). Bharatiya Janata Party : Periphery to Centre. Delhi: Shipra. ISBN 978-81-7541-078-7.
  • Baxter, Craig (1971) [first published by University of Pennsylvania Press 1969]. The Jana Sangh — A Biography of an Indian Political Party. Oxford University Press, Bombay. ISBN 978-0-8122-7583-4.
  • Chadha, Kalyani; Guha, Pallavi (2016). "The Bharatiya Janata Party's online campaign and citizen involvement in India's 2014 election". International Journal of Communication. 10.
  • Ganguly, Sumit (2015). "Hindu nationalism and the foreign policy of India's Bharatiya Janata Party" (PDF). Transatlantic Academy Paper Series. 2: 1–15. ISBN 978-1-5292-0460-5.
  • Graham, B. D. (1990). Hindu Nationalism and Indian Politics: The Origins and Development of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-38348-6.
  • Harriss, John. "Hindu Nationalism in Action: The Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian Politics." South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 38.4 (2015): 712-718 online.
  • Malik, Yogendra K.; Singh, V.B. (1994). Hindu Nationalists in India : The Rise of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-8810-6.
  • Jaffrelot, Christophe (1996). The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85065-301-1.
  • Jaffrelot, Christophe (July 2003). "Communal Riots in Gujarat: The State at Risk?" (PDF). Heidelberg Papers in South Asian and Comparative Politics: 16. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  • Jain, Varsha; B.E., Ganesh (2020). "Understanding the Magic of Credibility for Political Leaders: A Case of India and Narendra Modi". Journal of Political Marketing. 19 (1–2): 15–33. doi:10.1080/15377857.2019.1652222. S2CID 202247610.
  • Mishra, Madhusudan (1997). Bharatiya Janata Party and India's Foreign Policy. New Delhi: Uppal Pub. House. ISBN 978-81-85565-79-8.
  • Nag, Kingshuk (2014). The Saffron Tide: The Rise of the BJP. Rupa Publications. ISBN 978-8129134295.
  • Nag, Kingshuk. Atal Bihari Vajpayee (Rupa Publications, 2016).
  • Palshikar, Suhas, Sanjay Kumar, and Sanjay Lodha, eds. Electoral Politics in India: The Resurgence of the Bharatiya Janata Party (Taylor & Francis, 2017).
  • Raghavan, G.N.S. New Era in the Indian Polity, A Study of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and the BJP (1996).
  • Sanjeev Kr, H.M. "Foreign Policy Position of Bharatiya Janata Party Towards Issues of India Pakistan Relations." Indian Journal of Political Science (2007): 275-291. online
  • Sharma, C.P. Thakur, Devendra P. (1999). India under Atal Behari Vajpayee : The BJP Era. New Delhi: UBS Publishers' Distributors. ISBN 978-81-7476-250-4.
  • Stein, Burton (2010). A history of India (edited by David Arnold. 2nd ed.). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-9509-6.
  • Rao, Ramesh (2001). Coalition conundrum: the BJP's trials, tribulations, and triumphs. Har Anand. ISBN 9788124108093.

External links

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