Ray Dalio

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ray Dalio
Web Summit 2018 - Forum - Day 2, November 7 HM1 7481 (44858045925).jpg
Raymond Thomas Dalio

(1949-08-08) August 8, 1949 (age 72)
New York City, U.S.
EducationLong Island University, Post (BS)
Harvard University (MBA)
OccupationHedge fund manager
Known forFounder of Bridgewater Associates
Spouse(s)Barbara Dalio
Children4 sons, including Paul

Raymond Thomas Dalio (born August 8, 1949)[1] is an American billionaire investor and hedge fund manager, who has served as co-chief investment officer of the world's largest hedge fund, Bridgewater Associates, since 1985. He founded Bridgewater in 1975 in New York. Within ten years, it was infused with a $5 million investment from the World Bank's retirement fund.[2][3] Dalio is regarded as one of the greatest innovators in the finance world, having popularized many commonly used practices, such as risk parity, currency overlay, portable alpha and global inflation-indexed bond management.[4]

Dalio was born in New York City, and attended C.W. Post College of Long Island University before receiving an MBA from Harvard Business School in 1973. Two years later, in his apartment, Dalio launched Bridgewater. In 2013, it was listed as the largest hedge fund in the world.[5][6] In 2020 Bloomberg ranked him the world's 79th-wealthiest person.[7] Dalio is the author of the 2017 book Principles: Life & Work, about corporate management and investment philosophy. It was featured on The New York Times best seller list, where it was called a "gospel of radical transparency."[8][9]

Early life[]

Dalio was born in the Jackson Heights neighborhood of New York City's Queens borough.[10] When he was 8, the family moved from Jackson Heights to Manhasset in Nassau County, New York. He is the son of a jazz musician, Marino Dalio (1911–2002), who "played the clarinet and saxophone at Manhattan jazz clubs such as the Copacabana," and Ann, a homemaker.[10][11][12] As a child, Dalio had various odd jobs, including mowing lawns, shoveling snow, and a paper route.[13] He is of Italian descent. At age 12, he started caddying at The Links Golf Club, which was walking distance from his childhood home. He caddied for many Wall Street professionals during his time there, including Wall Street veteran George Leib. Leib and his wife Isabelle invited Dalio to their Park Avenue apartment for family dinners and holiday gatherings.[14] The couple's son, a Wall Street trader, later gave Dalio a summer job at his trading firm. He began investing at age 12, when he bought shares of Northeast Airlines for $300 and tripled his investment after the airline merged with another company.[15] By the time he reached high school, he had built up an investment portfolio of several thousand dollars.[16] He received a bachelor's degree in finance from Long Island University (C.W. Post College) and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School in 1973.[15][17]

Investment career[]


In his high school years, Dalio was an average student. He found school repetitive and monotonous, and saw no practical applications for the skills he was learning.[18] Because of this, he had trouble finding a college to enroll at. He finally applied and got into C.W Post College, a campus of Long Island University. He continued to buy and sell stocks in college, but became attracted to something new: commodity futures. Commodity futures had low borrowing requirements at the time, and Dalio knew he could profit more handsomely than with simple stocks. At the same time, he was beginning to enjoy school. With more freedom given to him, he took up transcendental meditation, which he still practices to this day.[19] With this newfound strategy to manage stress and focus, along with his blossoming appetite for learning, Dalio excelled academically. At the end of his time at C.W Post College, he was admitted to Harvard Business School.[16]

Graduate school[]

After graduating from C.W Post College, Dalio had a free summer. He took a job as a clerk on the New York Stock Exchange. While there, he witnessed Nixon's decision to take the United States off of the gold standard. Due to the inflation this caused, stock prices on the exchange rose, on average, 33% the following day.[16] These events set in motion the Great Inflation of the 1970's. The combination of easy money policy and abandonment of fiscal discipline set prices soaring.[20] The next summer, after his first year at Harvard, Dalio and his friends created the company that later became Bridgewater Associates. It started off as a small entity, and its goal was to trade commodities. But they lacked experience and the venture yielded little fruit.[16] Although the original Bridgewater failed, Dalio retained the name and used it to create the largest hedge fund ever.[21] This experience trading commodities later became much more valuable, as the high interest rates used to break the back of inflation caused the stock market to fall. This caused investors on Wall Street to turn to commodities, which are typically more resilient and thrive during times of inflation.

Professional start[]

After graduating from Harvard, Dalio married and started a family. He moved to Wilton, Connecticut, where he lived and traded out of a converted barn.[22] Dalio then worked on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange and traded commodity futures.[15] He later worked as the Director of Commodities at Dominick & Dominick LLC.[23] In 1974 he became a futures trader and broker at Shearson Hayden Stone, a securities firm[15] run by Sandy Weil, who later became famous for building up Citigroup. At the firm, Dalio's job was to advise cattle ranchers, grain producers, and other farmers on how to hedge risks, primarily with futures.[24] But he was largely dissatisfied with Shearson Hayden Stone's hierarchical structure, which reminded him of primary education. He longed for the more freedom-based lifestyle of college. At one point, he paid a stripper to drop her clothes in front of a crowd at the annual convention of the California Food and Grain Growers' Association.[24] His creative ways of blowing off steam continued, and exploded on New Year's Eve in 1974 after he went out drinking with some colleagues, including his boss. After a disagreement with his superior, a drunk Dalio punched him in the face. Soon afterward, he was let go from his job at Shearson Hayden Stone.[24]

Founding of Bridgewater Associates[]

Despite his aggressive behavior, numerous clients at Shearson Hayden Stone retained their trust in Dalio, and continued to allow him to manage their money. With this capital, he was able to scrape together the beginnings of his asset management fund.[16] In 1975, he founded Bridgewater Associates out of his two-bedroom New York City apartment.[25] Bridgewater started out as a wealth advisory firm, and did so for numerous corporate clients, mostly from Dalio's job at Shearson Hayden Stone.[16] The main areas in which Dalio advised were currencies and interest rates. The company began publishing a paid subscription research report, Daily Observations, in which it analyzed global market trends.[26] Dalio's big break came when McDonald's signed on as a client of his firm. Bridgewater then began to grow rapidly. The firm signed on larger clients, including the pension funds for the World Bank and Eastman Kodak.[27] In 1981 the firm opened an office in Westport, Connecticut, which was where Ray and his wife wanted to start a family.[16] Dalio started to become well-known outside of Wall Street after turning a profit from the 1987 stock market crash. The next year, he appeared on an "Oprah Winfrey Show" episode titled "Do Foreigners Own America?"[27] In 1991, he launched Bridgewater's flagship strategy, "Pure Alpha", a reference to the Greek letter that, in Wall Street terminology, represents the surcharge a money manager can earn above a particular market benchmark, such as the NASDAQ.[28] In 1996, Dalio launched All Weather, a fund that pioneered a steady, low-risk strategy that later became known as risk parity.[27]

Rise to prominence[]

Bridgewater Assoc. Pure Alpha I stock market strategy returns vs the S&P 500.

Bridgewater Associates became the world's largest hedge fund in 2005.[25] From 1991 to 2005 it lost money in only three calendar years, and never more than 4%. During the same period, the S&P 500 also had three down years, including a negative return of 22.1% in 2002.[29] The fund grew in size by using the standard hedge fund model, which takes a 2% management fee of assets and 20% of yearly profits accrued from using an investment system.[30] By 2005, Dalio was managing money for extremely large entities, including the $196 billion California Public Employees' Retirement System (CalPERS), the $27 billion Pennsylvania State Employees' Retirement System, Melbourne-based National Australia Bank Ltd. and the pension fund of Hartford, Connecticut-based United Technologies Corp.[29] In 2007, Bridgewater suggested there might be a global financial crisis,[31] and in 2008 Dalio published "How the Economic Machine Works: A Template for Understanding What is Happening Now", an essay assessing the potential of various economies by various criteria.[32] The firm's total assets under management increased to $50 billion in 2007 (up from $33 billion seven years earlier).[33]

According to a 2007 article in Barron's magazine, "nobody was better prepared for the global market crash" than Bridgewater's clients and subscribers to its Daily Observations. The company "began sounding alarms...in the spring of 2007 about the dangers of excessive financial leverage."[34] Researchers at the firm examined the public records of most of the world's largest financial entities and discovered that estimated future liabilities related to bad debts totaled $839 billion. When Dalio met with U.S. Treasury Department staff and other White House economic advisors in December, these findings were disclosed, but were largely ignored.[35] Due to this research, Bridgewater's Pure Alpha fund avoided much of the 2008 stock market implosion for its investors.[36] In 2008, a disastrous year for many of Bridgewater’s rivals, the firm’s flagship Pure Alpha fund rose in value by 9.5% after accounting for fees.[22] Dalio did this by anticipating that the Federal Reserve would be forced to print a lot of money to revive the economy. He went long on Treasury bonds, shorted the dollar, and bought gold and other commodities.[22] During his 2008 presidential campaign, John McCain paid a visit to the firm and spoke to staff.[37] The next year was not as bright. In 2009, when economic growth was higher than expected and the Dow Jones Industrial Average increased by 19%, the company's Pure Alpha fund reportedly earned just 2% to 4%.[36]

In 2011, Dalio self-published a 123-page volume, Principles, that outlines his philosophy of investment and corporate management.[38][39] By that same year, Dalio was managing money for the Pennsylvania Public School Employees’ Retirement System, Kodak, General Motors and the Government Investment Corporation of Singapore.[22] In 2012, he appeared on the annual Time 100 list of the 100 most influential people in the world.[40] In 2011 and 2012, Bloomberg Markets listed him as one of the 50 Most Influential people. Under Dalio's leadership, Bridgewater's Pure Alpha II had just three losing years in its history, with an average return of 10.4%. A stake in Bridgewater Associates Intermediate Holdings, LP was purchased by the Teacher Retirement System of Texas (TRS) for $250 million in February 2012. This stake was non-voting, and thus provided the pension fund with very little control of corporate governance.[41] Institutional Investor's Alpha ranked Dalio No. 2 on its 2012 Rich List.[42][43] Dalio has controlled Bridgewater Associates alongside co-chief investment officers Bob Prince and Greg Jensen since its inception. The hedge fund recently announced plans to reorganize as a partnership. Dalio said the reason for this was the continued sustainability and profit-sharing of the company.[44] Dalio was co-CEO of Bridgewater for 10 months before announcing in March 2017 that he would step down as part of a company-wide shakeup by April 15.[45] The company had been in a seven-year management and equity transition to find a replacement.[46] Jon Rubinstein, co-CEO of the fund, was announced to step down with Dalio, but would retain an advisory role.[45] As of October 2017 Bridgewater Associates had $160 billion in assets under management.[47] In reference to the personality that led him to investment success, Dalio has said that he considers himself a "hyperrealist", and that he is motivated to understand the mechanisms that dictate how the world actually functions, without adding in abstract value judgments.[30]

Investment philosophy[]

Dalio deploys multiple strategies within Bridgewater Associates. Dalio deploys capital to each of these strategies in proportions that he sees fit. According to Dalio, Bridgewater Associates is a "global macro firm",[48] investing around economic trends, such as changes in exchange rates, inflation, and G.D.P. growth.[22] The New Yorker called Dalio “a big-picture thinker connected to a street-smart trader".[22] Dalio divides his holdings into two different areas: beta investments and alpha investments.[49] Beta investments produce returns through passive management and normal market risk. Alpha investments are actively managed and aim to generate better returns than beta investments. Alpha investments are not related to the general market.[33] Dalio uses "quantitative" investment methods to identify new investments while avoiding unrealistic historical models.[49] Dalio's goal is to structure portfolios with uncorrelated investment returns based on risk allocations rather than asset allocations. Dalio's hedge fund mostly accepts money from institutional clients such as pension funds, foundations, endowments, and central banks.[22][50] Private investors can rarely invest in Dalio's holdings.[22][50][30]

When it comes to application, Dalio translates his market insights into algorithms, much like fellow quantitative hedge fund managers David Elliot Shaw and Jim Simons.[51] His strategy mainly focuses on currency and fixed income markets.[30] This is in contrast to buying individual shares in companies, like investors such as Warren Buffett and Peter Lynch.[30] Dalio also popularized the risk parity approach,[4] which he uses for risk management and diversification within Bridgewater Associates. Dalio employs an investment strategy that blends conventional diversification with "wagers on or against markets around the world" according to Bloomberg.[50] Dalio's risk parity approach allows for both leverage and external diversification when investing, as well as short selling. This allows Dalio to use any asset combination he chooses when investing.[52] Dalio's strategy uses an optimal risk target level as its basis for investing. This in contrast to first allocating capital and then achieving a risk target. Dalio implements this strategy by using leverage to evenly distribute exposure across various asset classes while maintaining the best risk target level.[52] Dalio began using the term "d-process" in February 2009 to describe the deleveraging and deflationary process of the subprime mortgage industry as distinct from a recession, and subsequently incorporated the term into his investment philosophy.[34] Dalio's exact investment portfolios are largely kept a secret from the outside world. This includes most employees as well as external investors, and only a dozen people within his firm understand how it trades at a given time.[27]



While Dalio has agreed that capitalism is generally the best economic system, he has argued that it needs to be reformed due to it "not working well for most Americans".[53] In April 7, 2019, Dalio said on 60 Minutes that income inequality in the United States was a national emergency requiring reform.[54][55] In July 2019, he again called for refinement of capitalism and called wealth inequality a national emergency.[56] In November 2019, he posted a blog entry stating that excess capital, unfunded social liabilities, and government deficits had created a recipe for disaster, in what he called a "paradigm shift".[57] In May 2020, he stressed the importance of reforming capitalism, not abandoning it, saying, "As the current crisis unfolds, we should remember that throughout history, capitalism has proven to be the best system, though it can sometimes be highly flawed."[58] In October 2020, Dalio said that there has been little income growth for average citizens over the preceding two decades, with the bottom 60% of workers having no inflation-adjusted income growth since the 1980s.[53] He mentioned that income inequality was at its highest level since the 1930s, when the top 1% of earners had more wealth than the bottom 99% combined.[59] Dalio said that the odds of a low-wage earner moving to a higher level of wealth were decreasing over time, and that this demonstrated Americans' lower economic and social mobility. He warned that inequality was becoming more entrenched and rising fast.[53] He said that a hypothetical improved capitalism would have to be good at creating a bigger pie and redistributing it as well.[58]


In October 2020, Dalio cautioned people to not be blind to China's rise,[60] arguing that it had continued to emerge as a global superpower. He claimed that China had succeeded in "exceptional ways", including high economic performance in spite of the COVID-19 pandemic, some of the lowest COVID-19 case rates, and being the center of half of all listed initial public offerings globally.[61][62] Dalio asserted that when he visited China in 1984, high-ranking officials would marvel at basic technology such as calculators, calling them "miracle devices". He argued that China was now on a par with the U.S. in advanced technologies and would probably take the lead in the next five years.[61] In addition, Dalio said that there were many indicators that favored China.[61] He discussed the growing population of well-educated citizens, as well as China's continued growth in the absorption and processing of data, which many headlines have called "the new oil".[63][64] Dalio also called China favorable from an investor's perspective. He said that the Chinese economy's fundamentals were strong and its assets relatively attractively priced.[60][61] Dalio also maintained that China's stocks and bonds were currently underweighted in terms of the global portfolio, and that the U.S. was bloated.[61] A natural shift in pricing would give China another comparative advantage. While stressing that things could always go wrong, Dalio stated that he believed China's path of economic reform would continue, bringing it unabated prosperity.[60][61] He also downplayed and denied Chinese human rights violations, instead likening the Chinese government to a "strict parent". Dalio's stance on China has garnered criticism.[65][66]

Personal life[]

Ray Dalio at the International Achievement Summit’s 2012 Banquet of the Golden Plate reception in Washington, D.C., with his wife, Barbara, and two Academy of Achievement student delegates, Philip Thigo of Kenya and Julia Fan Li of Canada.


Dalio lives with his wife Barbara, a descendant of sculptor Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney,[10] in Greenwich, Connecticut.[15] They have four sons, Devon, Paul, Matthew, and Mark.[11] Their oldest son, Devon, died in an automobile accident in 2020 at age 42.[67] Their second son, Paul Dalio (born 1979), is a film director.[68]


Dalio has suffered from Barrett's esophagus, a form of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a pre-malignant condition that if not treated properly can lead to cancer.[69]


In 2011, Dalio was the subject of John Cassidy's New Yorker article "Mastering the Machine".[22] In 2015, Forbes estimated his net worth at $15.4 billion, making him the second-wealthiest hedge fund manager after George Soros.[70] In 2014 he reportedly earned $1.1 billion, including a share of his firm's management and performance fees, cash compensation and stock and option awards.[71] In 2018, Dalio was estimated to have personally received $2 billion in compensation for the year, after his fund posted a 14.6% return.[72] According to Forbes, Dalio has an estimated net worth of $18.6 billion as of July 26, 2020, making him the world's 69th richest person[73] and 26th on the Forbes 400 list.[74] In March 2021, Bloomberg News reported that Dalio's net worth had fallen slightly to $17.0 billion, making him the world's 110th-richest person.[75]


Dalio giving a speech on philanthropy

In April 2011, Dalio and his wife joined Bill Gates and Warren Buffett's Giving Pledge, vowing to donate more than half his fortune to charitable causes within his lifetime.[76] He created the Dalio Foundation, which serves as his personal philanthropic vehicle. By the end of 2012, the Dalio foundation had built up assets of $590 million. In 2013, Dalio contributed another $400 million to the foundation, which increased its assets to about $842 million.

Through his foundation, Dalio has directed millions in donations to the David Lynch Foundation, which promotes and sponsors research on Transcendental Meditation.[77]

The Dalio Foundation has also contributed to the National Philanthropic Trust, to polio eradication projects.[78]

Dalio has sat on NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital's board of trustees since 2020.[79] In February 2020, the Dalio Foundation donated $10 million to support China's coronavirus recovery efforts in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In March 2020, the foundation gave $4 million to the state of Connecticut to fund healthcare and nutrition.[80] On October 13, 2020, NYP launched the Dalio Center for Health Justice, a research and advocacy organization, which will focus on reducing differences in access to quality health care that overwhelmingly affect communities of color[81] with a gift of $50 million. The money was used to establish the Dalio Center for Health Justice. In a statement, Dalio said, "Our goal is to contribute to equal healthcare and equal education because we believe that these are the most fundamental building blocks of equal opportunity and a just society."[82]

The foundation has also supported the Fund for Teachers, an initiative that supports professional learning fellowships for teachers.[83] The foundation was part of a group of foundations supporting the 2018 launch of TED's Audacious Project, an initiative to fund social entrepreneurs working to solve global issues.[84] In March 2019, Forbes named Dalio one of the highest-earning hedge fund managers and traders.[85] A special focus of his philanthropy is the world's oceans and the effects of damaging them. Dalio's research yacht and submarine have appeared on the Discovery Channel during Shark Week and been used to hunt for a giant squid.[70] In 2018, OceanX, an initiative of the Dalio family, and Bloomberg Philanthropies[86] committed $185 million over four years to protect the oceans.[87] In 2019, Dalio pledged $100 million to Connecticut public schools.[88]

Dalio has also backed the Volcker Alliance, the public policy group headed by former Federal Reserve chair Paul Volcker.[70]

Overall, the Dalio family has donated more than $5 billion to his foundation,[89] and the foundation has given out more than $1 billion in charitable grants.[90]


Dalio is an avid outdoorsman, and enjoys both hunting and fishing. He has hunted cape buffalo, grouse, elk and warthog.[80] He is especially fond of bow-hunting, which is his weapon of choice when stalking animals.[91][80]

Published works[]

How the Economic Machine Works; A Template for Understanding What is Happening Now is Dalio's first book, published in 2007.[92] In it, he describes the economy as a machine. His stated aim for the book was to explain how the economic machine works, as he saw many people did not understand. Dalio explains that contrary to popular belief, recession and depressions are created due to a shortfall of demand, rather than loss in productivity. He says that the Federal Reserve has chosen to define money as aggregates, rather than credit. In reality, all the money in circulation in the U.S economy is credit. By defining money properly as credit instead of aggregates (currency plus M1, M2 money supply etc.), the total amount of debt in the U.S. is $50 trillion, whereas the total amount of money is $3 trillion. Dalio explains the government "prints" money and uses it to combat some of the consequences of contracting credit. This is reflected in money growing at an extremely fast rate at the same time as credit and real economic activity contract. Dalio argues that if the money printing occurs on a large enough level, it devalues the currency, decreases interest rates and drives investors from financial assets to inflation hedge assets. This typically happens when investors want to move money outside the domestic currency and short-term government debt is no longer considered a safe investment.[92]

Principles: Life & Work is Dalio's second book, published in 2017 by Simon and Schuster.[93] It was a New York Times #1 bestseller and Amazon's #1 business book of 2017.[94] The catalyst for the book was a frank memo from his top lieutenants in 1993 about his interpersonal performance as a manager at Bridgewater Associates. Following the harsh but realistic critique, Dalio began to develop a unique company culture based on principles and unadorned feedback. He originally published a shorter version of Principles online in 2011, which received over three million downloads. He has announced that he will write a second volume, Principles: Economics & Investing.[95] Dalio has said that he could continue improving his returns by solidifying recurring lessons into "principles".[25]

Principles for Navigating Big Debt Crises is Dalio's third book, published in 2018.[96] In it, he provides a substructure for interpreting the mechanics of large debt plights. Dalio sets out six stages, from the roots of the crisis to its rectification. He analyzes 48 historical examples of debt crises when real GDP growth fell by 3% or more, in various historical economies, including developed and prosperous countries as well as emerging economies. Dalio categorizes big debt crises into two types—deflationary and inflationary—and provides historical and economic contexts for both, as well as lessons that can be learned from them.[93] The first type of debt crisis is deflationary. Dalio says that deflationary debt rotations generally happen when the majority of debt is denominated in a country’s own currency. An example of a country with this type of issue is Japan. Dalio believes it is possible for legislators to handle these scenarios relatively well, but even a good end result will be extremely costly to some people. The second type of scenario is inflationary. Inflationary debt cycles occur when most debt is denominated in foreign currencies. This situation makes it harder for a country’s policymakers to adjust risk and spread it out, a key step in resolving the crisis. Dalio says that the legislators must choose the beneficiaries and who suffers. This process often necessitates a need to recapitalize systemically important institutions, such as large banks.[93]

Dalio's newest book, The Changing World Order: Why Nations Succeed and Fail, was published on November 16, 2021.[97]

Awards and honors[]

In 2012, Dalio received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement presented by Carlyle Group co-founder David Rubenstein, during the International Achievement Summit in Washington, D.C.[98][99][100] CNBC listed Principles among the 13 Best Business Books of 2017.[101] Dalio was called the "Steve Jobs of Investing" by aiCIO Magazine and Wired Magazine.[102]

See also[]


  1. ^ "Bloomberg Billionaire Index". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  2. ^ "The Rise of Dalio Philanthropy: A Case Study of the New Mega-Giving". Inside Philanthropy. Archived from the original on April 23, 2017. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
  3. ^ "Ray Dalio". Forbes. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  4. ^ a b "Risk Parity Trade Made Famous by Ray Dalio Is Now Ringing Alarms". Bloomberg.com. 2020-03-12. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  5. ^ "Ray Dalio, Founder of World's Largest Hedge Fund: Weak Economy Makes Second Adolf Hitler More Likely". Algemeiner. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
  6. ^ "Ray Dalio". Archived from the original on 2019-07-16.
  7. ^ "Bloomberg Billionaires Index - Ray Dalio". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 2020-02-14. Retrieved 2020-02-07.
  8. ^ Stevenson, Alexandra; Goldstein, Matthew (2017-09-08). "Bridgewater's Ray Dalio Spreads His Gospel of 'Radical Transparency'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2020-03-30. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  9. ^ Sorkin, Andrew Ross (2017-09-04). "Bridgewater's Ray Dalio Dives Deeper Into the 'Principles' of Tough Love". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2020-01-17. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  10. ^ a b c Wright, Robin (September 15, 2008). "Mastering the Machine". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on April 3, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
  11. ^ a b "The Palm Beach Post from West Palm Beach, Florida on September 4, 2002 · Page 38". Newspapers.com. September 4, 2002. Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
  12. ^ Cometto, Maria Teresa. "Ray Dalio, il libretto rosso dello speculatore che attacca l'Italia". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2018-04-13. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  13. ^ "Ray Dalio". Academy of Achievement. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  14. ^ "Ray Dalio, one of the world's wealthiest men, got his start carrying clubs". Golf. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  15. ^ a b c d e "Pursuing Self-Interest in Harmony With the Laws of the Universe and Contributing to Evolution is Universally Rewarded" Archived 2017-12-05 at the Wayback Machine Kevin Roose, April 10, 2011, New York Magazine
  16. ^ a b c d e f g "Ray Dalio". Academy of Achievement. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  17. ^ "Bridgewater's Ray Dalio on the 'Principles' of Tough Love - Alumni - Harvard Business School". www.alumni.hbs.edu. Archived from the original on 2019-01-12. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  18. ^ "5 Key Valuable lessons from Ray Dalio! this will surely transform your life". www.linkedin.com. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  19. ^ Clifford, Catherine (2018-03-16). "Hedge fund billionaire Ray Dalio: Meditation is 'the single most important reason' for my success". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  20. ^ Kramer, Leslie. "The Great Inflation of the 1970s". Investopedia. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  21. ^ Andrew Bloomenthal. "World's Top 10 Hedge Fund Firms". Investopedia. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cassidy, John (July 25, 2011). "Mastering the Machine: How Ray Dalio built the world's richest and strangest hedge fund". The New Yorker Magazine: 56–65.
  23. ^ "Radical Transparency" Archived 2017-10-24 at the Wayback Machine 2010, Leaders Magazine. Volume 33, Number 3
  24. ^ a b c Comstock, Courtney. "The Crazy Story Of How Ray Dalio Got Fired From His First Wall Street Job". Business Insider. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  25. ^ a b c "The head of the world's largest hedge fund explains how he learned to invest". Business Insider. Archived from the original on April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
  26. ^ "Hedge Funds: Living large". Pensions & Investments. 2008-02-04. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  27. ^ a b c d Stevenson, Alexandra; Goldstein, Matthew (2017-09-08). "Bridgewater's Ray Dalio Spreads His Gospel of 'Radical Transparency'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2020-03-30. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  28. ^ "Bridgewater's Dalio Lures Pension Funds With 13.3 Percent Gains - Bloomberg". 2012-11-06. Archived from the original on 2012-11-06. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  29. ^ a b "Bridgewater's Dalio Lures Pension Funds With 13.3 Percent Gains - Bloomberg". 2012-11-06. Archived from the original on 2012-11-06. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  30. ^ a b c d e O'Keefe, Brian (March 19, 2009). "Inside the World's Biggest Hedge Fund". Fortune. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
  31. ^ Cassidy, John (July 25, 2011). "Mastering the Machine How Ray Dalio built the world's richest and strangest hedge fund". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
  32. ^ How the Economic Machine Works; A Template for Understanding What is Happening Now Archived 2016-11-23 at the Wayback Machine. Ray Dalio, October 31, 2008
  33. ^ a b Williamson, Christine (4 February 2008). "Hedge Funds: Living Large". Pensions & Investments. Crain Communications Inc. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
  34. ^ a b Ward, Sandra (February 9, 2009) Recession? No, It's a D-process, and It Will Be Long Barrons. Retrieved March 18, 2010
  35. ^ Cassidy, John (July 25, 2011) Mastering the Machine New Yorker. Retrieved July 2011
  36. ^ a b Corkery, Michael and Eder, Steve, June 22, 2011 Bridgewater Goes Large Wall Street Journal, pg C1-C2
  37. ^ Pazsniokas, Mark (April 10, 2008) A Tough Audience Investment Workers? Pointed Questions Pierce McCain?s Stump Lines Hartford Courant
  38. ^ Ovide, Shira (October 22, 2010). "More on Bridgewater's Ray Dalio, Wall Street's Oddest Duck". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on July 15, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
  39. ^ Rosenthal, Norman E. (2013). The Gift of Adversity. Penguin Group. pp. Chapter 41. ISBN 9780399163715. Retrieved December 4, 2013. Dalio Principles.
  40. ^ Volcker, Paul (April 18, 2012). "The 100 Most Influential People in the World". Time. Archived from the original on August 17, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  41. ^ Reuters Staff (2012-02-20). "Texas Teacher Retirement fund takes Bridgewater stake-report". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  42. ^ Taub, Steven (April 15, 2013). "The Rich List". Institutional Investor's Alpha. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  43. ^ Creswell, Julie (15 April 2013). "Hedge Fund Titans' Pay Stretching to 10 Figures". The New York Times (DealBook). United States. The New York Times Company. p. B1. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  44. ^ Zitter, Leah. "How Did Bridgewater's Ray Dalio Get Rich?". Investopedia. Retrieved 2021-03-30.
  45. ^ a b Cox, Jeff (2017-03-01). "Bridgewater's Ray Dalio to step down at Co-CEO on April 15". Archived from the original on 2017-06-14. Retrieved 2017-06-23.
  46. ^ Cox, Jeff (2017-03-01). "Bridgewater's Ray Dalio stepping down from co-CEO role in company shakeup". CNBC. Archived from the original on 2017-12-28. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  47. ^ Goldstein, Matthew (16 October 2016). "Small Endowments May Get to Invest in Bridgewater Associates". The New York Times (DealBook). United States. The New York Times Company. p. B5. Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  48. ^ Roose, Kevin (21 October 2011). "Bridgewater's Dalio: 'I Think I Did Everything Right'". New York Times (DealBook). United States. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  49. ^ a b Brewster, Deborah (January 8, 2008) The alpha and beta of a lone manager, Financial Times.
  50. ^ a b c Teitelbaum, Richard (29 November 2005). "Bridgewater's Dalio Lures Pension Funds With 13.3 Percent". BloombergMarkets. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
  51. ^ Max, D. T. (11 December 2017). "Jim Simons, the Numbers King". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2021-04-23.
  52. ^ a b Barone, Adam. "Risk Parity Definition". Investopedia. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  53. ^ a b c Dalio, Ray (2020-10-13). "Why and How Capitalism Needs to Be Reformed". The Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  54. ^ Mark Niquette (April 7, 2019). "Dalio Says Capitalism's Income Inequality Is National Emergency". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  55. ^ Bill Whitaker (April 7, 2019). "Ray Dalio says wealth inequality is a national emergency; The founder of the most successful hedge fund in the world says capitalism needs to be reformed and that the American dream is lost". cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  56. ^ "Ray Dalio says wealth inequality is a national emergency". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on 2019-08-02. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  57. ^ "Ray Dalio Says the 'World Has Gone Mad' With So Much Free Money". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2019-11-06. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
  58. ^ a b Perspectives, Ray Dalio for CNN Business. "Ray Dalio: We must reform capitalism, not abandon it". CNN. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  59. ^ Paul, Kari. "America's 1% hasn't controlled this much wealth since before the Great Depression". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  60. ^ a b c "Don't be blind to China's rise in a changing world". www.linkedin.com. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  61. ^ a b c d e f Dalio, Ray (23 October 2020). "Don't Be Blind to China's Rise". Financial Times. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  62. ^ Huang, Eustance (2020-12-30). "China's IPO market is set to keep booming in 2021, says investor". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  63. ^ Bhageshpur, Kiran. "Council Post: Data Is The New Oil -- And That's A Good Thing". Forbes. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  64. ^ Yonego, Joris Toonders (2014-07-23). "Data Is the New Oil of the Digital Economy". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  65. ^ Browne, Ryan (2021-08-25). "Ray Dalio is wrong about China's tech crackdown, economist says". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-12-04.
  66. ^ Lee, Isabelle (December 2, 2021). "Watch billionaire investor Ray Dalio defend China's move to disappear citizens from the public eye by likening it to being 'a strict parent'". Business Insider. Retrieved 2021-12-04.
  67. ^ Billionaire Ray Dalio's Son Devon Dies in Fiery Car Crash at 42: 'Terrible Pain'
  68. ^ Finance (March 19, 2012). "Ray Dalio's Son Is An Entertainment Producer, And He's Directing A Movie About Maniac Depressives With Spike Lee's Support". Business Insider. Archived from the original on April 9, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  69. ^ "Ray Dalio Says He's Not Sick, Just Triangulating". Bloomberg. September 14, 2019. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  70. ^ a b c Vardi, Nathan. "Hedge Fund Billionaire Ray Dalio Steps Up Foundation Giving". Forbes. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  71. ^ H. Kent Baker; Greg Filbeck (26 July 2017). Hedge Funds: Structure, Strategies, and Performance. Oxford University Press. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-0-19-060739-5. Archived from the original on 7 March 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  72. ^ "Here's What Ray Dalio Made in Bridgewater's Impressive 2018". Institutional Investor. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  73. ^ https://www.forbes.com/profile/ray-dalio/?list=rtb#4afc776f663a Archived 2020-07-26 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved July 26, 2020 Sunday
  74. ^ "Ray Dalio". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2012-06-06. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  75. ^ "Bloomberg Billionaires Index". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  76. ^ "Bridgewater's Dalio Joins Giving Pledge - NY Times". The New York Times. April 28, 2011. Archived from the original on September 11, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
  77. ^ "Hedge Fund Billionaire Ray Dalio Gives Big for David Lynch". www.institutionalinvestor.com. Archived from the original on 2017-08-23. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
  78. ^ Vardi, Nathan. "Hedge Fund Billionaire Ray Dalio Steps Up Foundation Giving". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2018-04-09. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  79. ^ "NYP.org About Us Governance and Leadership Board of Trustees". Retrieved 2020. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  80. ^ a b c "Raymond Thomas Dalio - Wealth-X Dossier". Wealth-X. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  81. ^ https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-10-13/ray-dalio-donates-50-million-to-fight-health-care-injustice
  82. ^ Stevens, Pippa (2020-10-14). "Bridgewater's Ray Dalio pledges $50 million for new health justice initiative". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  83. ^ "9 Stamford Educators Receive Grants For U.S. & Foreign Studies". Stamford, CT Patch. 2018-04-09. Archived from the original on 2018-04-11. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
  84. ^ Nicosia, Mareesa. "TED Launches The Audacious Project, Awarding $250M to New Crop of Social Entrepreneurs". Archived from the original on 2018-04-11. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
  85. ^ Vardi, Nathan. "The Highest-Earning Hedge Fund Managers And Traders". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2019-03-30. Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  86. ^ "Michael R. Bloomberg and Ray Dalio's OceanX Announce Over $185 Million for New Partnership to Increase Ocean Exploration and Protection". Bloomberg Philanthropies. Archived from the original on 2019-07-01. Retrieved 2019-05-22.
  87. ^ Chaykowski, Kathleen. "Ray Dalio and Michael Bloomberg Commit $185 Million To Protect The Oceans". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2019-04-02. Retrieved 2019-04-02.
  88. ^ Yakowicz, Will. "The Biggest Philanthropic Gifts Of 2019". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2020-05-28. Retrieved 2020-10-15.
  89. ^ Locke, Taylor (2020-12-03). "What Ray Dalio gives for the holidays (Hint: It sometimes involves a blank check)". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  90. ^ Block, Fang. "Bridgewater's Ray Dalio Commits $50 Million to Address Health Justice". www.barrons.com. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  91. ^ Levin, Bess. "Don't Try And Tell Ray Dalio There's Anything Risky About Hunting An Animal Known To Impale People With Its Giant Horns". Dealbreaker. Retrieved 2021-04-10.
  92. ^ a b "Bridgewater: How the Economic Machine Works A Template for Understanding What is Happening Now". Tamma Capital. 2012-08-08. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  93. ^ a b c "Book Review: Principles for Navigating Big Debt Crises". CFA Institute Enterprising Investor. 2019-08-09. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  94. ^ "Ray Dalio's Book Has Sold a Million Copies. But Who's Actually Implementing His Ideas?". Institutional Investor. Archived from the original on 2018-12-31. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  95. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-12-31. Retrieved 2018-12-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  96. ^ Montag, Ali (2018-09-14). "Billionaire Ray Dalio remembers the moment he saw the financial crisis coming: 'This is the big one'". CNBC. Archived from the original on 2018-09-17. Retrieved 2018-09-17.
  97. ^ Dalio, Ray (2021-08-17). The Changing World Order: Why Nations Succeed and Fail. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-9821-6479-9.
  98. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on 2016-12-15. Retrieved 2020-10-02.
  99. ^ "2012 Summit Highlights". American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on 2020-09-17. Retrieved 2020-10-02.
  100. ^ "Ray Dalio Biography and Interview. Photo: Ray Dalio, founder of the world's largest hedge fund, Bridgewater Associates, receives the Golden Plate Award of the Academy of Achievement from Awards Council member David Rubenstein, co-founder of The Carlyle Group". American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on 2020-09-17. Retrieved 2020-10-02.
  101. ^ Clifford, Catherine (2017-12-27). "13 of the best business books of 2017". CNBC. Archived from the original on 2017-12-27. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  102. ^ "Bloomberg Billionaires Index". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2021-04-24.

External links[]

  • Quotations related to Ray Dalio at Wikiquote
Retrieved from ""