List of political parties in Poland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article lists current political parties in Poland, as well as former parties dating back as far as 1918. Since 1989, Poland has had a multi-party system, with numerous competing political parties. Individual parties normally do not manage to gain power alone, and usually work with other parties to form coalition governments.

The transition from a mono-party Communist regime to liberal democracy and pluralism resulted in new political parties mushrooming in the early 1990s. After the first free parliamentary elections in 1991 seats in the Sejm were divided among more than a dozen different parties (amongst them such curiosities as the Polish Beer-Lovers' Party (Polska Partia Przyjaciół Piwa), led by a popular comedy actor, ). The existence of so many parties in the Sejm was seen by many as being counterproductive to the effectiveness of the parliament and a hindrance towards producing stable governments. Consequently, electoral reform was undertaken and an electoral threshold for the Lower House was instituted prior to the 1993 elections. The set threshold required a minimum vote of 5% for parties (with exemptions for ethnic minority parties) and 8% for electoral coalitions. The threshold was set at the national, rather than divisional, level, and had the effect of preventing many minor parties from winning seats in later elections. The threshold also prevented independent candidates from gaining election to the Sejm. Since 1990, the left side of the political scene has generally been dominated by former Communists turned social democrats. The right has largely comprised (former) Solidarity activists and supporters, but experienced deep divisions from the beginning, and showed less cohesiveness than the left. The right were unable to create a single bloc which could act as a lasting counterweight to the left-wing monolith, but instead, kept merging, splitting and renaming. Even so, the parties of the right did manage to win government again from 1997 to 2001 (having initially governed from 1989 to 1993).

Since the parliamentary elections of 2005, the right-wing parties have dominated the political scene, and appear to be in their strongest position to date. Two important developments in the political landscape have taken place since 2005. Firstly, the SLD (Communist successor) party is no longer the major, or one of the two major parties. Secondly, the main political battleground is no longer between the ex-Solidarity right versus the ex-Communist left. The new competing groupings are those of the Law and Justice party (promoting economic interventionism and social conservatism) and the Civic Platform (representing a more liberal-conservative position). The general public disapproval of politics and politicians as a whole has resulted in almost all major parties excluding the very word "party" from their names, replacing it with words less associated with politics, such as "union", "platform", "league" or "alliance".

Parliamentary parties[]

Party Leader Ideology European
Sejm Senat EP
United Right
Prawo i Sprawiedliwość wordmark.svg Law and Justice (PiS)
Prawo i Sprawiedliwość
Jarosław Kaczyński National conservatism
Right-wing populism
198 / 460
44 / 100
24 / 52
Solidarna Polska Teillogo.png United Poland (SP)
Solidarna Polska
Zbigniew Ziobro National conservatism
Political Catholicism
19 / 460
2 / 100
2 / 52
Logo of the Republican Party (Poland).png Republican Party (R)
Partia Republikańska
Adam Bielan National conservatism
Economic liberalism
9 / 460
1 / 100
1 / 52
OdNowa RP logo.png Renewal (ODRP)
Marcin Ociepa Youth politics
5 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Civic Coalition
Civic Platform basic logo.svg Civic Platform (PO)
Platforma Obywatelska
Donald Tusk Liberal conservatism
106 / 460
38 / 100
14 / 52
Nowoczesna logo.svg Modern (.N)
Adam Szłapka Liberalism
Classical liberalism
6 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Polish Initiative Logo.png Polish Initiative (iPL)
Inicjatywa Polska
Barbara Nowacka Progressivism
Social democracy
5 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Partia zieloni ekran podstawowe.png The Greens
Wojciech Kubalewski
Małgorzata Tracz
Green politics European
3 / 460
0 / 100
1 / 52
The Left
Lewica logo (Poland).png New Left (NL)
Nowa Lewica
Włodzimierz Czarzasty
Robert Biedroń
Social democracy S&D
38 / 460
0 / 100
4 / 52
Logo of the Left Together.svg Left Together (LR)
Lewica Razem
Collective leadership Democratic socialism
6 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Polish Coalition
Polnische Bauernpartei (PSL) Logo.svg Polish People's Party (PSL)
Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe
Władysław Kosiniak-Kamysz Agrarianism
Christian democracy
19 / 460
2 / 100
3 / 52
Union of European Democrats.png Union of European Democrats (UED)
Unia Europejskich Demokratów
Elżbieta Bińczycka Liberalism
Social liberalism
1 / 460
1 / 100
0 / 52
Korwin political logo.png KORWiN
Janusz Korwin-Mikke Paleoconservatism
Right-wing populism
5 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
National Movement logo.png National Movement (RN)
Ruch Narodowy
Robert Winnicki Ultranationalism
Social conservatism
5 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Confederation of the Polish Crown (Korona)
Konfederacja Korony Polskiej
Grzegorz Braun Polish nationalism
1 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Poland 2050 logo.svg Poland 2050
Polska 2050
Szymon Hołownia Christian democracy
Green politics
8 / 460
1 / 100
1 / 52
Agreement party logo.png Agreement
Jarosław Gowin Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
6 / 460
1 / 100
0 / 52
Logo Kukiz'15 (2019).svg Kukiz'15 (K'15)
Paweł Kukiz Right-wing populism
4 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52
Logo PPS.svg Polish Socialist Party (PPS)
Polska Partia Socjalistyczna
Wojciech Konieczny Socialism
Democratic socialism
2 / 460
2 / 100
0 / 52
German Minority Electoral Committee.png German Minority (MN)
Mniejszość Niemiecka
Ryszard Galla German minority interests
1 / 460
0 / 100
0 / 52

Parties without representation[]


Party Leader Ideology Comments
Communist party of Poland (2002).png Polish Communist Party
Komunistyczna Partia Polski
KPP Communism
Founded in 2002 as the successor of the Union of Polish Communists "Proletariat", which was founded in 1990. It is considered to be the historical and ideological heir of the Communist Party of Poland, which operated from 1918 to 1938. Affiliated with INITIATIVE.

Ruch Odrodzenia Gospodarczego im. Edwarda Gierka
ROG Socialism
Refers to the achievements of Edward Gierek's (Secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party, 1970–1980) rule. It is against Poland's membership in NATO and postulated the withdrawal of troops from Iraq.

Ruch Sprawiedliwości Społecznej
RSS Piotr Ikonowicz Socialism
Left-wing populism
Founded in 2014 by social activist Piotr Ikonowicz based on his Social Justice Chancellery. Before the presidential elections in 2015, RSS supported candidate of The Greens Anna Grodzka, who did not collect the required number of signatures.


Party Leader Ideology Comments

Akcja Zawiedzionych Emerytów Rencistów
AZER Pensioners' rights
Founded in 2018 by former leader of The Confederation of Polish Employers, Wojciech Kornowski. Its main goal is protecting retired seniors, pensioners and trust-busting.

Lepsza Polska
LP Green politics
Small green party which never stood in any elections.

Partia Chłopska
PCh Krzysztof Filipek Agrarian socialism
Left-wing nationalism
Left-wing populism
Founded by Krzysztof Filipek and other former members of Self-Defence.

Polska Partia Ochrony Zwierząt
PPOZ Animal rights
Animal welfare
PPOZ aspires to turn away from the anthropocentric view of life. Its main goal is the introduction of more animal rights.

Samoobrona Odrodzenie
SO Agrarian socialism
Left-wing nationalism
Left-wing populism
Founded in 2007 from the merger of the Self-Defense Social Movement party and several other marginal groups formed by splitters from the Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland.
Arbeitsunion-Logo.svg Labour Union
Unia Pracy
UP Waldemar Witkowski Social democracy
Small social-democratic party which usually aligns itself with the Democratic Left Alliance. It was founded in 1992 by left-wing anti-communist politicians. Affiliated with PES.
Liberty and Equality
Wolność i Równość
WiR Democratic socialism
Founded in 2005 as a Union of the Left, in 2015 its name was changed to Liberty and Equality. It usually takes part in elections as part of coalitions of larger left-wing parties.


Party Leader Ideology Comments
Polish Left
Polska Lewica
PL Social democracy
Social liberalism
Third Way
Formed in 2007 when former Prime Minister Leszek Miller and many other members of parliament withdrew from the Democratic Left Alliance, which Miller had headed for many years. His departure also served as a public protest against the policies of party leaders. In 2010 Miller left the party and decided to return to SLD.
Social Democracy of Poland
Socjaldemokracja Polska
SDPL Social democracy
Social liberalism
Founded in 2004 as a splinter group from Democratic Left Alliance. SDPL contested its first elections in 2004. Party gained 5.3%, which saw 3 members elected to the European Parliament. In 2005 they managed to gain 3.9% of the vote and fell short of the 5% threshold. SDPL put forward its leader Marek Borowski as candidate for the presidential elections. He came 4th winning 10.3% of the vote. SDPL usually takes part in elections as part of coalitions.
Logo TwojRuch.png Your Movement
Twój Ruch
TR Janusz Palikot Progressivism
Social liberalism
Founded by Janusz Palikot, a former Civic Platform MP, in 2010, as Palikot's Movement. It adopted its current name in 2013. In 2011 parliamentary election, party received 10% of the vote and won 40 seats in the Sejm, making it the third party behind Civic Platform and Law and Justice, one of the best debut performances for a party since the end of communism. In 2015 parliamentary election United Left list was led by Your Movement's Barbara Nowacka and received only 7.6% of the vote, below the 8% threshold, leaving TR without parliamentary representation.


Party Leader Ideology Comments

Ruch Wspólna Polska
WP Rafał Trzaskowski Progressivism

Shared Poland (Polish: Ruch Wspólna Polska), also known as New Solidarity (Polish: Nowa Solidarność), is a political movement started by Rafał Trzaskowski, Mayor of Warsaw and former leading candidate in the 2020 Polish Presidential Election. It was founded in October 2020.
Demokracja Bezpośrednia logo.svg Direct Democracy
Demokracja Bezpośrednia
DB Direct democracy
DB's creation was inspired by the 2012 protests against ACTA. In the elections to the European Parliament in 2014, DB set up its own committee, which received 0.23% of the votes. In the 2015 presidential election, DB's candidate was Paweł Tanajno, who took the last place with 0.2% of votes. In the parliamentary elections in 2015, five DB activists (including Tanajno) entered the Sejm from lists of the Kukiz'15. None of them received a mandate.

1PL Eurofederalism
Direct democracy
Founded as Civic Republic of Poland.
Confederation of Independent Poland
Konfederacja Polski Niepodległej
KPN Sanationism
Syncretic politics
Founded in 1979 by Leszek Moczulski and others declaring support for the pre-war traditions of Sanacja and Józef Piłsudski. It was the first independent political party that was publicly proclaimed in the Eastern Bloc. After the fall of communism, Leszek Moczulski got only 2.5% of votes in 1990 presidential election. In 1991 parliamentary election the party got 7.5% of the vote, while in the 1993 parliamentary election it received 5.7%.

Polska Partia Internetowa
PPI Green liberalism
Founded in 2019. Party combines ecologic stances with economic liberalism.
Pirate Party of Poland logo RGB.svg Polish Pirate Party
Polska Partia Piratów
P3 Pirate politics
Liquid democracy
Freedom of information
Before European Parliament elections in 2014, P3 concluded an agreement with DB, by virtue of which its activists were included in the lists of the DB committee, which received 0.23% of the votes. In the local elections of the same year, Tomasz Słowiński was nominated by KNP as a candidate in Skierniewice presidential elections, taking the last, 6th place with slightly more than 2% support. Affiliated with PPEU.

Polskie Stronnictwo Demokratyczne
PSD Christian democracy
Founded in 2013 by Christian democratic wing of Alliance of Democrats. It started transient cooperation with Poland Together.

Przedsiębiorcza Rzeczypospolita Polska
PRP Economic liberalism
Main postulates of party include liberalisation of economy, reduction of taxes and introduction of criminal and financial responsibility of officials.
Alliance of Democrats
Stronnictwo Demokratyczne
SD Paweł Piskorski Liberalism
Social liberalism
Originated in the Democratic Clubs, which were opposed to authoritarian tendencies in Poland between the two World Wars. The first club was founded in Warsaw in 1937. In the People's Republic of Poland SD became a satellite party of the communist Polish United Workers' Party regime. After 1990, most of the members of the SD joined other parties, such as the Freedom Union. Party continued to exist, but had only a small support base, and was not represented in parliament. Affiliated with EDP.


Party Leader Ideology Comments
Christian Democracy of the 3rd Polish Republic
Chrześcijańska Demokracja III Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
ChDRP Lech Wałęsa Christian democracy
Social conservatism
Social market economy
Founded in 1997 by former president Lech Wałęsa. It took the German CDU as a role model. In 2000 Wałęsa ran in the presidential election, receiving 1.01% of votes (he took 7th place out of 12 candidates).
LPR logo.svg League of Polish Families
Liga Polskich Rodzin
LPR Witold Bałażak Conservatism
Social conservatism
Christian democracy
LPR was created just before parliamentary elections in 2001 as a far-right nationalist party. In 2004 European Parliament elections, LPR received 15.2%, which gave it 10 out of 54 seats, making it the second-largest party in Poland in that election. In 2005 elections, LPR received 8% of votes and formed a government coalition with PiS and SRP. In the 2007 parliamentary election, it failed to gain the 5% of votes and lost all its seats. In the following years, LPR has become more moderate, usually supporting candidates of PO and PSL.

Partia Wolności
PW Conservative liberalism
Economic liberalism
Founded by moderate splitters from Congress of the New Right and "The Republicans" Association.

Piotr Liroy-Marzec Classical liberalism
Economic liberalism
Direct democracy
Created in 2018 by former rapper and MP Liroy. It cooperated with Confederation in 2019 European Parliament elections, but left the coalition a few weeks later.

Stronnictwo Ludowe "Ojcowizna"
SL"O" Agrarianism
Social conservatism
Refers to the Polish People's-Christian Forum "Patrimony" - a party operating in the years 1991–1997. Many activists of trade union "Solidarity of Individual Farmers" belong to "Patrimony". Its founder Roman Bartoszcze was a candidate in 1990 presidential elections.
Stronnictwo piast.jpg "Piast" Party
Stronnictwo Piast
Zdzisław Podkański Agrarianism
Social conservatism
Christian democracy
Formed in 2006 as a result of the break-up in PSL and the departure of the right wing of the party. Its name refers both to the Polish medieval Piast dynasty and to the pre-war conservative party PSL Piast.
Labour Party
Stronnictwo Pracy
SP Solidarism
Christian democracy
Social market economy
Founded in 1989 on the initiative of the activists of the Christian Democratic Club of Political Thought. In 1990 the name Christian-Democratic Labour Party (ChDSP) was adopted. It referred to the Labour Party operating in the years 1937–1950.


Party Leader Ideology Comments

Alternatywa Społeczna
AS Right-wing populism
National conservatism
Christian right
Founded by Piotr Wroński - Colonel of the Intelligence Agency and a former officer of Polish Special Services.

Europa Wolnych Ojczyzn – Partia Polska
EWO-PP Anti-Lisbon Treaty
National liberalism
Marginal party was founded in 2008 as an opposition to the Lisbon Treaty.

Godne Życie
Direct democracy
Right-wing populism
Small populist party which never participated in any elections.

Jedność Narodu
JN National conservatism
National liberalism
Registered one list in 2019 European Parliament election. It won 0.02% of the vote.
Emblem of Nowa Prawica.svg Congress of the New Right
Kongres Nowej Prawicy
KNP Stanisław Żółtek Libertarian conservatism
National liberalism
Conservative liberalism
Founded in 2011 by Janusz Korwin-Mikke by the merger of Liberty and Lawfulness with several members of Real Politics Union. The former leader Korwin-Mikke was ousted from the party in 2015, which caused massive decline in its support. Affiliated with the ID Party.
National League
Liga Narodowa
LN National democracy
National conservatism
Originally registered in 2007 as a National People's Movement (and operated under this name until 2013). It was founded mainly by former activists of League of Polish Families and Self-Defence. As RLN it had agrarian-nationalist character, while as LN it refers only to national democracy.

Liga Obrony Suwerenności
LOS Souverainism
National conservatism
Favors of full sovereignty of Poland. It opposed Poland's accession to the European Union and is in favour of protecting the Polish economy against unfair competition from foreign capital. It recognized King Bolesław Chrobry as its patron. The 18 April (date of the coronation of Bolesław Chrobry as King of Poland in 1025) is celebrated as a party holiday.

Normalny Kraj
NK Conservative liberalism
Economic liberalism
Marginal party founded by splitters from Congress of the New Right and "The Republicans" Association.

Obrona Narodu Polskiego
ONP Agrarianism
National conservatism
National Catholicism
Originally registered in 2005 as a Self-Defence of the Polish Nation (it operated under this name for a year). It was founded by nationalist splitters from Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland.

Stanisław Żółtek Polexit
Satellite party of KNP, established for the elections to the European Parliament in 2019. It registered lists in 2 constituencies.

Polska Patriotyczna
PP National Catholicism
Founded in 2008 by activists of the Patriotic Self-Defence (acting parallel to this group until 2013).

Polski Ruch Monarchistyczny
PRM Monarchism
Christian right
The founder, leader, and regent of party is Leszek Wierzchowski. PRM confirms old titles of nobility and aristocracy and awards new ones "for merit". It also awards its own orders and decorations. PRM favors a state governed by a hereditary king as a constitutional monarchy. It considers the Constitution of 3 May to be the foundation of its actions.
Polish Agreement
Porozumienie Polskie
PP National conservatism
National Catholicism
Founded in 1999 by splitters from the Solidarity Electoral Action. In the 2000 presidential election Jan Łopuszański won 0.79% of the vote. Before parliamentary elections in 2001, PP joined LPR, maintaining its independence, and won 3 seats. In 2003 cooperation was terminated and PP lost its importance.
Prawica Rzeczypospolite logo.png Right Wing of the Republic
Prawica Rzeczypospolitej
PR Political Catholicism
Social conservatism
Founded by former Marshal of the Sejm Marek Jurek on 20 April 2007 after he had left Law and Justice on 16 April 2007, when the Sejm failed to pass a constitutional amendment protecting prenatal life. It positions itself as a Christian conservative party with a strong focus on family rights and an anti-abortion stance. Affiliated with ECPM.

Przymierze Ludowo-Narodowe
PLN Agrarianism
National conservatism
Marginal party with agrarian-nationalist agenda.
National-Catholic Movement
Ruch Katolicko-Narodowy
RKN National Catholicism
National conservatism
Political Catholicism
Created in 1997 by politician Antoni Macierewicz. He left it in 2012.

Ruch Prawdziwa Europa
RPE Mirosław Piotrowski Political Catholicism
Christian fundamentalism
Social conservatism
Created in 2019 by former PiS MEP Mirosław Piotrowski, who belonged to party's fundamentalist faction.

Stronnictwo Polska Racja Stanu
SPRS National conservatism
National Catholicism
In 2000 SPRS candidate Dariusz Grabowski won 0.51% of the vote in presidential election. It was the first and last start of the party in any elections.
LogoUPR.gif Real Politics Union
Unia Polityki Realnej
UPR National liberalism
National conservatism
Economic liberalism
Created as libertarian conservative party in 1987, became more nationalist after its most prominent politician Janusz Korwin-Mikke left it in 2009. UPR cooperated with RN in the European Parliament election in 2014, local elections in 2014 and the presidential election in 2015. In the parliamentary election in 2015, the whole RN stand for the Sejm from the lists of Kukiz'15. UPR lost its parliamentary seats in 2019.

II Rzeczpospolita Polska[1]
II RP Founded by Jan Zbigniew Potocki, who claims that he is the legitimate President of Poland and that the Constitution of 1935 is still in force.

Unia Polskich Ugrupowań Monarchistycznych
UPUM Monarchism
Conservative liberalism
Liberal conservatism
Founded in 1997. It gives noble and aristocratic titles.

Zjednoczenie Chrześcijańskich Rodzin
ZChR Bogusław Rogalski Social conservatism
Christian right
Founded in 2019 by former LPR MEP Bogusław Rogalski. It cooperates with the Right Wing of the Republic and the Real Europe Movement.


Party Leader Ideology Comments
National Revival of Poland
Narodowe Odrodzenie Polski
NOP Ultranationalism
Revolutionary nationalism
Third position
Founded in 1981 as a discussion club. Often accused of racism and anti-Semitism. It never had a parliamentarian. Affiliated with ENF.
Federacja dla Rzeczypospolitej
FdR Marek Jakubiak Social conservatism
Political Catholicism
Economic liberalism
Created in 2018 by former entrepreneur and MP Marek Jakubiak. It cooperated with Confederation in 2019 European Parliament elections, but left the coalition a few weeks later.

Piast – Jedność Myśli Europejskich Narodów
Piast-JMEN Polish nationalism
Pan-European nationalism
Formed in 2015. It strives for the peaceful cooperation of European nations, but recognizes the differences between them.

Polska Wspólnota Narodowa
PWN Polish nationalism
A pro-Russian party founded in 1990. Criticizes the US and Israel, has a significant pagan wing.

Ruch 11 Listopada
11/11 Protestant fundamentalism
Founded by members of the Protestant sect Church of the New Covenant. It is known for aversion to the Catholic Church, Russia and China. Movement has a positive attitude towards the United States and Israel.

Stronnictwo Narodowe
SN Ultranationalism
Ethnic nationalism
One of the parties founded by Leszek Bubel, former MP and presidential candidate, who calls himself "the supreme anti-Semite of Poland".

Stronnictwo Narodowe im. Dmowskiego Romana
SND Polish nationalism
National democracy
National conservatism
Refers to the political thought of Roman Dmowski, one of the fathers of Polish independence.

Parties difficult to define/regional[]

Logo Party Leader Ideology Comments

Aktywni Samorządowcy
AS Local party from the Świdnica County.
Logo of the Civic Initiative.svg Civic Initiative
Inicjatywa Obywatelska
IO Local party from the Tarnowskie Góry County.

Liga Samorządowa Pierwsza
LSP Local party from the Pszczyna County.

Organizacja Narodu Polskiego – Liga Polska
ONP-LP Political party which associates Poles living abroad.

Partia Rozwoju
PR Party created by businessman and user of Polish Usenet Arnold Buzdygan. It does not carry out any activities.
National Party of Retirees and Pensioners
Krajowa Partia Emerytów i Rencistów
KPEiR Tomasz Mamiński Pensioners' rights Founded in 1994. It lost its first parliamentary election in 1997 winning just 2.18% and no seat in Sejm and Senate. In the parliamentary elections in 2015, several activists of KPEiR competed for the Sejm from the lists of the United Left, which did not obtain any seats.

Stronnictwo Patriotyczne Polski i Polonii
SPPiP Political party which associates Poles living abroad.
Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland
Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
SRP Lech Kuropatwiński Agrarianism
Polish nationalism
SRP became prominent in the 2001 parliamentary election, winning 53 seats, after which it gave confidence and supply to the SLD government. It elected 6 MEPs in 2004 and switched its support to PiS after the 2005 election, in which it won 56 seats and entered the government coalition. In 2007, the party leader was dismissed from his position and the party withdrew from the coalition. This precipitated a new election, at which the party collapsed and lost all of its seats.
Silesian Autonomy Movement.svg Silesian Regional Party
Śląska Partia Regionalna
ŚPR Party associating regionalists from Silesian local organizations. The most important of them is the Silesian Autonomy Movement. Affiliated with EFA.
Cropped-ŚlonzokiRazem logo-3.png Silesians Together
Ślonzoki Razem
ŚR Silesian regional Party.

Party founded by former MP Andrzej Anusz, who belonged to parties from all sides of the political spectrum.

Związek Słowiański
ZS Pan-Slavic party which promotes cooperation between Slavic nations.
Party of Drivers
Partia Kierowców
PK Lech Kędzierski Drivers' rights
Created in 2019. Member of Confederation.

Historical parties[]

Important defunct parties after 1989[]

Party Leader Ideology European
Founded Dissolved Comments
Solidarity Citizens' Committee
Komitet Obywatelski "Solidarność"
KO "S" Bronisław Geremek Big tent
Liberal democracy
1989 1991 Initially a semi-legal political organisation of the democratic opposition in Communist Poland. In the partially-free 1989 election KO "S" won all 161 seats available in the Sejm, and 99 out of 100 seats in the senate. On 25 August 1989, the new "Contract Sejm" elected its candidate Tadeusz Mazowiecki as Prime Minister, making him the first ever non-Communist head of government east of the Iron Curtain. Shortly afterwards, the Committee broke up into several smaller parties.
Christian National Union
Zjednoczenie Chrześcijańsko-Narodowe
ZChN Wiesław Chrzanowski National Catholicism
National conservatism
Christian democracy
1989 2010 Party formed by Catholic politicians of KO "S". In 1991 election it took 3rd place, winning 8.74% and introducing 49 MPs. ZChN was a member of two government coalitions. In 1993 the party did not cross electoral threshold and in 1997 it became member of AWS. In 2001 most of ZChN activists joined LPR or PiS. Party lost its former significance.
Logo SdRP.jpg Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland
Socjaldemokracja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
SdRP Aleksander Kwaśniewski Social democracy
Third Way
SI 1990 1999 Party was formed after the dissolution of communist PZPR. In 1991 it created the left-wing SLD coalition. In the election held this year it won 11.99% of the votes, taking second place. Two years later SLD won election and in 1995 Aleksander Kwaśniewski became president. In 1997 the party lost power. In 1999 SdRP co-founded a unified party SLD and dissolved itself.
Centre Agreement
Porozumienie Centrum
PC Jarosław Kaczyński Anti-communism
Christian democracy
EDU 1990 2001 Party founded in 1990, demanded a break with previous policy of the government of Tadeusz Mazowiecki, who was accused of leaving the remains of communism too slowly. PC candidate Lech Wałęsa won the presidential election, but later on he got into conflict with the party. In 1991, PC received 8.71% of the votes, introducing 44 MPs, but in 1993 only 4.42% (below the electoral threshold). In 1997 party started from AWS and ROP lists, introducing 15 MPs. In 2001 PC was transformed into the currently ruling PiS.
Citizens' Movement for Democratic Action
Ruch Obywatelski Akcja Demokratyczna
ROAD Władysław Frasyniuk Liberalism
Social liberalism
1990 1991 Party was founded in response to creation of PC by Jarosław Kaczyński. In 1990 presidential election it supported candidacy of Tadeusz Mazowiecki, who took 3rd place. In 1991, ROAD merged with FPD and established the UD.

Forum Prawicy Democratycznej
FPD Aleksander Hall Conservative liberalism
Liberal conservatism
Christian democracy
1990 1991 Party formed by moderate right-wing politicians of KO "S". In 1991 it merged with ROAD to form UD.
Polish Social Democratic Union
Polska Unia Socjaldemokratyczna
PUS Social democracy
Social patriotism
Welfare state
1990 1991 Along with SdRP, PUS was one of successor parties of communist PZPR. The party itself was succeeded by currently existing UP.
Liberal Democratic Congress
Kongres Liberalno-Demokratyczny
KLD Donald Tusk Economic liberalism
Conservative liberalism
EDU 1990 1994 Party originated from Gdańsk Social-Economic Society "Congress of Liberals". In 1991 elections KLD won 7.49% of votes and 37 seats in the Sejm. In 1993 it did not reach electoral threshold and a year later merged with UD to form UW.
Polska Partia Przyjaciół Piwa - logo.jpg Polish Beer-Lovers' Party
Polska Partia Przyjaciół Piwa
PPPP Political satire

1990 1993 Party founded by popular satirists. Originally, its goal was to promote cultural beer-drinking in English-style pubs instead of vodka and thus fight alcoholism. In 1991 election PPPP won 16 seats in the Sejm capturing 2.97% of the vote. Party soon split into Large Beer and Small Beer factions. Eventually PPPP was dissolved in 1993.
Party X
Partia X
X Stanisław Tymiński Populism
Syncretic politics
1990 1999 Party was established by businessman Stanisław Tymiński who took 2nd place in 1990 presidential election. In 1991 parliamentary elections it received 0.47% of the vote, winning three seats in the Sejm. Despite increasing its vote share in the 1993 election to 2.74%, it failed to win a seat, following introduction of a 5% electoral threshold. Party failed to collect enough signatures for Tymiński to run in the 1995 presidential elections.
Unia demokratyczna logo.png Democratic Union
Unia Demokratyczna
UD Tadeusz Mazowiecki Liberalism
Social liberalism
Christian democracy
1991 1994 Party was founded by Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki as a merger of ROAD and FPD. It won election this year with 12.32% of the vote and 62 MPs. A year later conservative faction left party. In 1993 election UD took 3rd place (10.59% of votes and 74 MPs) and a year later merged with KLD to form UW.
Peasants' Agreement
Porozumienie Ludowe
PL Gabriel Janowski Agrarianism
Christian democracy
1991 1999 In 1991 parliamentary election party received 5.5% of the vote, winning 28 seats in the Sejm. It joined the coalition governments headed by Jan Olszewski and Hanna Suchocka. Due to several splits and internal disagreements, 1993 elections saw the party's vote share fall to 2.4%. As it had failed to pass the 5% electoral threshold, it lost all its parliamentary representation. In 1997 PL joined AWS.

Ruch dla Rzeczypospolitej
RdR Jan Olszewski Anti-communism
National conservatism
Paternalistic conservatism
1992 1999 Party founded by overthrown former Prime Minister Jan Olszewski and a group of radically anti-communist MPs who demanded full lustration. In 1993 elections, RdR obtained 2.7% of the votes and did not cross electoral threshold. Two years later Olszewski took 4th place in presidential election. In 1995, the most important RdR politicians founded ROP, while the rest of party joined AWS.
Nonpartisan Bloc for Support of Reforms
Bezpartyjny Blok Wspierania Reform
BBWR Andrzej Olechowski Big tent
Pro-Wałęsa politics
1993 1997 Party affiliated with President Lech Wałęsa. It was founded to continue the traditions of Józef Piłsudski's pre-war Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government (Bezpartyjny Blok Współpracy z Rządem), which likewise had been known by the same initials, BBWR. In 1997 became part of AWS.
Freedom Union
Unia Wolności
UW Bronisław Geremek Liberalism
Social liberalism
Economic liberalism
ALDE 1994 2005 Party was founded out of merger of UD and KLD. In 1997 election UW got 13.37% of the votes and 60 seats. It joined government coalition with AWS. In 2001 some members of UW decided to create new party PO, which got 12.68% of the votes and 65 seats in general elections whilst UW failed to cross the 5% threshold required to gain entry to the lower house of Parliament, receiving only 3.10%. Surprisingly, party managed to cross the required 5% threshold in 2004 European Parliament election, receiving 7.33% of votes and 4 seats. In 2005 UW was transformed into PD.
Movement for Reconstruction of Poland
Ruch Odbudowy Polski
ROP Jan Olszewski National conservatism
Paternalistic conservatism
Social conservatism
1995 2012 Party was established after 1995 presidential election, which ended with an unexpectedly good result for Jan Olszewski (4th place, 6.86% of votes). Despite formation of AWS, which integrated almost all centre-right and right-wing parties, ROP, encouraged by the high support in polls, decided to stay outside the federation. Eventually, in 1997 election party received 5.56% of support and introduced only 6 MPs (including Jarosław Kaczyński - Chairman of PC, whose other members ran from AWS lists). In 2001 party participated in election on LPR lists and in following years lost its significance.
Aws-logo.svg Solidarity Electoral Action
Akcja Wyborcza Solidarność
AWS Marian Krzaklewski Solidarism
Christian democracy
Social conservatism
1996 2001 Formation of party was connected with integration of post-Solidarity parties into a broad electoral block. AWS won 1997 parliamentary election gaining 33.83% of votes and 201 seats. It formed a coalition with UW, which collapsed in 2000. Chairman Marian Krzaklewski became AWS candidate in 2000 presidential election. His candidacy did not arouse general consensus - some activists were largely in favour of independent Andrzej Olechowski. Krzaklewski won 15.57% of votes, finishing third. In 2001 liberal wing left AWS and joined new party PO, created by a part of former UW politicians. Trade union NSZZ "Solidarity" decided not to participate in political structures anymore. Activists associated with the Kaczyński brothers created another new party - PiS. Christian-national wing joined LPR. As a result of parliamentary election in 2001, AWS failed to cross the 8% threshold required to gain entry to the Sejm as coalition, receiving only 5.60% of votes. Shortly afterwards, federation ceased to exist.
Conservative People's Party
Stronnictwo Konserwatywno-Ludowe
SKL Jan Rokita Liberal conservatism
Christian democracy
1997 2014 Creation of party was result of merger of several small, moderately conservative parties. It was also joined by some former UW MPs. It quickly joined AWS. In 2001 party participated in elections by running from PO lists. The most important politicians (including future President Bronisław Komorowski) joined PO and SKL became marginal. In 2014 party joined Agreement.
Polska Partia Pracy Logo Alt.png Polish Labour Party
Polska Partia Pracy
PPP Bogusław Ziętek Marxism
EACL 2001 2017 Small party of the extreme left. Despite lack of electoral successes, it managed to run in elections many times and gain recognition.
Inicjatywa Feministyczna.png Feminist Initiative
Inicjatywa Feministyczna

Women's rights
Social progressivism
2007 2020 Party was registered in 2007 and was known as "Women's Party" (Partia Kobiet) until 2016. On 21 October 2007 National Assembly election, it won 0.28% of the popular vote and no seats in the Sejm or the Senate.
Partia Demokratyczna - demokraci Logo.svg Democratic Party –
Partia Demokratyczna –
PD Władysław Frasyniuk Liberalism
Social liberalism
ALDE 2005 2016 Party was supposed to become an extension of UW by politicians coming from the left, social democratic Prime Minister Marek Belka was one of its founders. Some notable politicians did not join the new party. In 2005 parliamentary election PD did not reach the electoral threshold, obtaining the result of 2.45% of votes. In the following years, party unsuccessfully joined several centre-left electoral coalitions. In 2016 PD was renamed to UED. 4 MPs of PO joined new party.
PJN logo.svg Poland Comes First
Polska Jest Najważniejsza
PJN Paweł Kowal Conservative liberalism
Liberal conservatism
Christian democracy
ACRE 2010 2013 Party was founded by liberal wing of PiS, which did not agree with its economic policy. In 2011 parliamentary election PJN received 2.19% of the votes, which did not allow it to obtain seats in the Sejm. In 2013 party joined Agreement.
Logo Teraz!.jpg Now!
Teraz! Ryszard Petru Liberalism
Economic liberalism
ALDE 2018 2019 Party founded by Ryszard Petru after leaving .Nowoczesna party. Turned out to be ephemeral and quickly dissolved.
Logo WiS.png Free and Solidary
Wolni i Solidarni
WiS Kornel Morawiecki Solidarism
State interventionism
2016 2020[2][3] Party formed by Kornel Morawiecki, former Senior Marshal of the Sejm. MPs of the party were elected from the lists of Kukiz'15. Formerly declared support for Prime Minister Beata Szydło and her government, but later moved into opposition to the government of Mateusz Morawiecki. WiS lost all seats in 2019.

Defunct parties of People's Republic of Poland[]

Party Leader Ideology European
Founded Dissolved Comments
POL PZPR logo.svg Polish United Workers' Party
Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza
PZPR Bolesław Bierut (first) Communism
Cominform 1948 1990 PZPR was established at unification congress of PPR and PPS during meetings in 1948. Unification was possible because PPS activists who opposed it had been forced out of party. PZPR ruled Poland in the years until 1989. During semi-free election this year communists won 65% of seats in the Sejm, though seats won were guaranteed and PZPR was unable to gain a majority, while 99 out of 100 seats in Senate freely contested were won by Solidarity-backed candidates. Jaruzelski won presidential ballot by one vote. In 1990 PZPR was renamed to SdRP.
ZSL clover.svg United People's Party
Zjednoczone Stronnictwo Ludowe
ZSL Władysław Kowalski (first) Agrarian socialism
Peasant movement
1949 1989 Party was formed from the merger of communist SL with remnants of the independent PSL of Stanisław Mikołajczyk. ZSL became – as intended from its beginning – a satellite party of PZPR, representing it in rural areas. In 1989 after victory of Solidarity in legislative elections together with PZPR's other satellite party, SD, ZSL decided to support opposition. At party congress ZSL merged with anti-communist PSL in exile, forming today's PSL. SD exists until now.

Defunct and historical political parties in the Second Polish Republic, 1918–1939[]

  • Agudath Israel
  • Bloc of National Minorities – Blok Mniejszosci Narodowych
  • Bund (General Jewish Labor Union)
  • Camp of National Unity – Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego, OZN ("Ozon", continuation of BBWR, nationalist)
  • Centrolew, "Center-Left" – coalition of parties.
  • Chjeno-Piast – coalition of that included the Polish People's Party "Piast" and Christian Association of National Unity
  • – Chrześcijańska Demokracja (ChD)
  • Communist Party of Poland – Komunistyczna Partia Polski, KPP – (communist, illegal)
  • Folkspartei – Jewish People's Party ('Folkists')
  • German Socialist Labour Party of Poland – (German: Deutsche Sozialistische Arbeitspartei Polens, abbreviated DSAP, Polish: Niemiecka Socjalistyczna Partia Pracy w Polsce)
  • Labor Party – Stronnictwo Pracy, SP
  • National Democracy – Narodowa Demokracja, ND ("Endecja") (nationalist)
    • Popular National Union – Związek Ludowo-Narodowy, ZLN
    • National Party – Stronnictwo Narodowe, SN
  • National Radical Camp – Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny, ONR (extreme-right)
    • National Radical Camp ABC
    • National Radical Camp Falanga – Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny Falanga or Falanga
  • National Workers' Party – Narodowa Partia Robotnicza, NPR
  • Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government – Bezpartyjny Blok Współpracy z Rządem, BBWR (organization of Sanacja)
  • Peasant Party – Stronnictwo Chłopskie, SCh
  • People's Party – Stronnictwo Ludowe, SL
  • Polish People's Party PSL – Polish People's Party (agrarians)
  • Polish Socialist Party – Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS (socialist)
  • Sanation – Sanacja (meant to "restore health" to the body politic: authoritarian, centrist)
  • Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance – (UNDO) (Ukrainian: Українське національно-демократичне об'єднання, УНДО, Ukrayin'ske Natsional'no-Demokratichne Obyednannia, Polish: Ukraińskie Zjednoczenie Narodowo-Demokratyczne)
  • ZCh (Polish Wikipedia article)

Defunct and historical parties Political parties before 1918[]

  • Polish Social Democratic Party – Polska Partia Socjaldemokratyczna (PPS) (1890-1919)
  • Polish Socialist Party ��� Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (1892-1948)
  • Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania – Socjaldemokracja Krolestwa Polskiego i Litwy, SDKPiL (1893-1918)
  • Polish Socialist Party of the Prussian Partition - Polska Partia Socjalistyczna Zaboru Pruskiego (1893-1919)
  • Polish Socialist Party – Revolutionary Faction - Polska Partia Socjalistyczna - Frakcja Rewolucyjna (1893-1918)
  • National-Democratic Party (Poland) – Stronnictwo Narodowo-Demokratyczne (1897-1919)
  • National Workers' Union - Narodowy Związek Robotników (1905-1920)
  • Polish Socialist Party – Left - Polska Partia Socjalistyczna - Lewica (1906-1918)
  • Christian Democratic Party - Stronnictwo Chrześcijańskiej Demokracji (1919-1937)
  • - Polska Partia Socjalno-Demokratyczna Galicji i Śląska Cieszyńskiego
  • – Związek Postępowo-Demokratyczny
  • – Stronnictwo Polityki Realnej
  • Polish People's Party – Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe
  • - Narodowe Stronnictwo Robotników
  • - Związek Stronnictwa Chłopskiego
  • - Stronnictwo Chrześcijańsko-Ludowe
  • - Polskie Centrum Ludowe

Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth[]

See also[]

  • Politics of Poland
  • List of political parties by country
  • List of politicians in Poland


Further reading[]

  • Dariusz Cecuda, Leksykon Opozycji Politycznej 1976-1989, BIS Trust, Warszawa 1989
  • Małgorzata Dehnel-Szyc, Jadwiga Stachura, Gry polityczne. Orientacje na dziś, Oficyna Wydawnicza Volument, Warszawa 1991
  • Piotr Frączak (e.d), Gorączka czasu przełomu. Dokumenty ugrupowań radykalnych 1989-1990, Instytut Studiów Politycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, Warszawa 1984
  • Inka Słodkowska (ed.), Programy partii i ugrupowań parlamentarnych 1989-1991' vol. 1–2, Instytut Studiów Politycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Warszawa 1995
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