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Commonwealth of Australia

Anthem: Advance Australia Fair[N 1]
A map of the eastern hemisphere centred on Australia, using an orthographic projection.
Commonwealth of Australia, including the Australian territorial claim in the Antarctic
35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444
Largest citySydney
Official languagesNone at the federal level
National languageEnglish[N 2]
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
• Governor-General
David Hurley
• Prime Minister
Scott Morrison
House of Representatives
from the United Kingdom
1 January 1901
9 October 1942 (with effect
from 3 September 1939)
• Australia Act
3 March 1986
• Total
7,692,024 km2 (2,969,907 sq mi) (6th)
• Water (%)
1.79 (as of 2015)[6]
• 2021 estimate
Neutral increase 25,851,900[7] (53rd)
• 2016 census
• Density
3.4/km2 (8.8/sq mi) (192nd)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.416 trillion[9] (18th)
• Per capita
Increase $54,891[9] (17th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.61 trillion[9] (12th)
• Per capita
Increase $62,728[9] (9th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 32.5[10]
medium · 16th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.944[11]
very high · 8th
CurrencyAustralian dollar ($) (AUD)
Time zoneUTC+8; +9.5; +10 (Various[N 4])
• Summer (DST)
UTC+8; +9.5; +10;
+10.5; +11
(Various[N 4])
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+61
ISO 3166 codeAU

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.[13] It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia's population of nearly 26 million,[7] in an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi),[14] is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.[15] Canberra is the nation's capital, while the largest city is Sydney, and other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years,[16] prior to the first arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored by European settlers and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories.

Australia is the oldest,[17] flattest,[18] and driest inhabited continent,[19][20] with the least fertile soils.[21][22] It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east. Australia generates its income from various sources, including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking, manufacturing, and international education.[23][24][25]

Australia is a highly developed country, with the world's twelfth-largest economy. It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income.[26] Australia is a regional power, and has the world's thirteenth-highest military expenditure.[27] Immigrants account for 30% of the country's population,[28] the highest proportion among major Western nations.[29] Having the eighth-highest Human Development Index, and the ninth-highest ranked democracy globally as of 2020, Australia ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties, and political rights,[30] with all its major cities faring exceptionally in global comparative livability surveys.[31] It is a member of the United Nations, the G20, the Commonwealth of Nations, the ANZUS, the OECD, the WTO, the APEC, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Pacific Community and the ASEAN + 6 mechanism.


The name Australia (pronounced /əˈstrliə/ in Australian English[32]) is derived from the Latin Terra Australis ("southern land"), a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times.[33] When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was naturally applied to the new territories.[N 5]

Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 (as Nieuw-Holland) and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts.[N 6] The name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the Earth".[39] Several famous early cartographers also made use of the word Australia on maps. Gerardus Mercator used the phrase climata australia on his double cordiform map of the world of 1538, as did Gemma Frisius, who was Mercator's teacher and collaborator, on his own cordiform wall map in 1540. Australia appears in a book on astronomy by Cyriaco Jacob zum Barth published in Frankfurt am Main in 1545.[40]

The first time that Australia appears to have been officially used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst.[41] In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted.[42] In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially by that name.[43] The first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office.[44]

Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under" (usually shortened to just "Down Under"). Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", and "the Wide Brown Land". The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country".[45]



Aboriginal rock art in the Kimberley region of Western Australia

Human habitation of the Australian continent is known to have begun at least 65,000 years ago,[46][47] with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia.[48] The Madjedbebe rock shelter in Arnhem Land is recognised as the oldest site showing the presence of humans in Australia.[49] The oldest human remains found are the Lake Mungo remains, which have been dated to around 41,000 years ago.[50][51] These people were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians.[52] Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual cultures on Earth.[53]

At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies.[54][55] Recent archaeological finds suggest that a population of 750,000 could have been sustained.[56][57] Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime.[58] The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas.[59] The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically for trade by Makassan fishermen from what is now Indonesia.[60]

European arrival

A painting of Captain James Cook landing at Botany Bay, New South Wales
Captain Cook landing at Botany Bay, 1770

The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch.[61] The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon.[62] He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, and made landfall on 26 February 1606 at the Pennefather River near the modern town of Weipa on Cape York.[63] Later that year, Spanish explorer Luís Vaz de Torres sailed through, and navigated, Torres Strait islands.[64] The Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent "New Holland" during the 17th century, and although no attempt at settlement was made,[63] a number of shipwrecks left men either stranded or, as in the case of the Batavia in 1629, marooned for mutiny and murder, thus becoming the first Europeans to permanently inhabit the continent.[65] William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688 (while serving as a crewman under pirate Captain John Read[66]) and again in 1699 on a return trip.[67] In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain.[68]

With the loss of its American colonies in 1783, the British Government sent a fleet of ships, the "First Fleet", under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, to establish a new penal colony in New South Wales. A camp was set up and the Union flag raised at Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, on 26 January 1788,[69][70] a date which later became Australia's national day, Australia Day. Most early convicts were transported for petty crimes and assigned as labourers or servants upon arrival. While the majority settled into colonial society once emancipated, convict rebellions and uprisings were also staged, but invariably suppressed under martial law. The 1808 Rum Rebellion, the only successful armed takeover of government in Australia, instigated a two-year period of military rule.[71]

The indigenous population declined for 150 years following settlement, mainly due to infectious disease.[72] Thousands more died as a result of frontier conflict with settlers.[73] A government policy of "assimilation" beginning with the Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 resulted in the removal of many Aboriginal children from their families and communities—referred to as the Stolen Generations — a practice which also contributed to the decline in the indigenous population.[74] As a result of the 1967 referendum, the Federal government's power to enact special laws with respect to a particular race was extended to enable the making of laws with respect to Aboriginals.[75] Traditional ownership of land ("native title") was not recognised in law until 1992, when the High Court of Australia held in Mabo v Queensland (No 2) that the legal doctrine that Australia had been terra nullius ("land belonging to no one") did not apply to Australia at the time of British settlement.[76]

Colonial expansion

A calm body of water is in the foreground. The shoreline is about 200 metres away. To the left, close to the shore, are three tall gum trees; behind them on an incline are ruins, including walls and watchtowers of light-coloured stone and brick, what appear to be the foundations of walls, and grassed areas. To the right lie the outer walls of a large rectangular four-storey building dotted with regularly spaced windows. Forested land rises gently to a peak several kilometres back from the shore.
Tasmania's Port Arthur penal settlement is one of eleven UNESCO World Heritage-listed Australian Convict Sites.

The expansion of British control over other areas of the continent began in the early 19th century, initially confined to coastal regions. A settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land (present-day Tasmania) in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825.[77] In 1813, Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Wentworth crossed the Blue Mountains west of Sydney, opening the interior to European settlement.[78] The British claim was extended to the whole Australian continent in 1827 when Major Edmund Lockyer established a settlement on King George Sound (modern-day Albany).[79] The Swan River Colony (present-day Perth) was established in 1829, evolving into the largest Australian colony by area, Western Australia.[80] In accordance with population growth, separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, New Zealand in 1841, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859.[81] The Northern Territory was excised from South Australia in 1911.[82] South Australia was founded as a "free province" — it was never a penal colony.[83] Western Australia was also founded "free" but later accepted transported convicts, the last of which arrived in 1868, decades after transportation had ceased to the other colonies.[84] In the mid-19th century, explorers such as Burke and Wills went further inland to determine its agricultural potential and answer scientific questions.[85]

A series of gold rushes beginning in the early 1850s led to an influx of new migrants from China, North America and continental Europe,[86] and also spurred outbreaks of bushranging and civil unrest; the latter peaked in 1854 when Ballarat miners launched the Eureka Rebellion against gold license fees.[87] Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually gained responsible government, managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the British Empire.[88] The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs[89] and defence.[90]


Photo of an ANZAC memorial with an elderly man playing the bugle. Rows of people are seated behind the memorial. Many small white crosses with red poppies have been stuck into the lawn in rows on either side of the memorial.
The Last Post is played at an Anzac Day ceremony in Port Melbourne, Victoria. Similar ceremonies are held in many suburbs and towns.

On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of planning, consultation and voting.[91] After the 1907 Imperial Conference, Australia and the other self-governing British colonies were given the status of "dominion" within the British Empire.[92][93] The Federal Capital Territory (later renamed the Australian Capital Territory) was formed in 1911 as the location for the future federal capital of Canberra. Melbourne was the temporary seat of government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was being constructed.[94] The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the federal parliament in 1911.[95] Australia became the colonial ruler of the Territory of Papua (which had initially been annexed by Queensland in 1883[96]) in 1902 and of the Territory of New Guinea (formerly German New Guinea) in 1920. The two were unified as the Territory of Papua and New Guinea in 1949 and gained independence from Australia in 1975.[97][98][99]

In 1914, Australia joined Britain in fighting World War I, with support from both the outgoing Commonwealth Liberal Party and the incoming Australian Labor Party.[100][101] Australians took part in many of the major battles fought on the Western Front.[102] Of about 416,000 who served, about 60,000 were killed and another 152,000 were wounded.[103] Many Australians regard the defeat of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) at Gallipoli as the birth of the nation — its first major military action.[104][105] The Kokoda Track campaign is regarded by many as an analogous nation-defining event during World War II.[106]

Britain's Statute of Westminster 1931 formally ended most of the constitutional links between Australia and the United Kingdom. Australia adopted it in 1942,[107] but it was backdated to 1939 to confirm the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during World War II.[108][109] The shock of Britain's defeat in Asia in 1942, followed soon after by the bombing of Darwin and other Japanese attacks, led to a widespread belief in Australia that an invasion was imminent, and a shift towards the United States as a new ally and protector.[110] Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military ally of the United States, under the ANZUS treaty.[111]

After World War II, Australia encouraged immigration from mainland Europe. Since the 1970s and following the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also promoted.[112] As a result, Australia's demography, culture, and self-image were transformed.[113] The Australia Act 1986 severed the remaining constitutional ties between Australia and the United Kingdom.[114] In a 1999 referendum, 55% of voters and a majority in every state rejected a proposal to become a republic with a president appointed by a two-thirds vote in both Houses of the Australian Parliament. There has been an increasing focus in foreign policy on ties with other Pacific Rim nations while maintaining close ties with Australia's traditional allies and trading partners.[115]

Geography and environment

General characteristics

Map showing the topography of Australia, showing some elevation in the west and very high elevation in mountains in the southeast
Topographic map of Australia. Dark green represents the lowest elevation and dark brown the highest

Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans,[N 7] Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas, with the Coral Sea lying off the Queensland coast, and the Tasman Sea lying between Australia and New Zealand. The world's smallest continent[117] and sixth largest country by total area,[118] Australia—owing to its size and isolation—is often dubbed the "island continent"[119] and is sometimes considered the world's largest island.[120] Australia has 34,218 km (21,262 mi) of coastline (excluding all offshore islands),[121] and claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250 square kilometres (3,146,060 sq mi). This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory.[122]

Mainland Australia lies between latitudes and 44° South, and longitudes 112° and 154° East.[123] Australia's size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and desert in the centre.[124] The desert or semi-arid land commonly known as the outback makes up by far the largest portion of land.[125] Australia is the driest inhabited continent; its annual rainfall averaged over continental area is less than 500 mm.[126] The population density is 3.2 inhabitants per square kilometre, although a large proportion of the population lives along the temperate south-eastern coastline.[127]

Heron Island, a coral cay in the southern Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef,[128] lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 km (1,200 mi). Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world's largest monolith,[129] is located in Western Australia. At 2,228 m (7,310 ft), Mount Kosciuszko is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland. Even taller are Mawson Peak (at 2,745 m (9,006 ft)), on the remote Australian external territory of Heard Island, and, in the Australian Antarctic Territory, Mount McClintock and Mount Menzies, at 3,492 m (11,457 ft) and 3,355 m (11,007 ft) respectively.[130]

Eastern Australia is marked by the Great Dividing Range, which runs parallel to the coast of Queensland, New South Wales and much of Victoria. The name is not strictly accurate, because parts of the range consist of low hills, and the highlands are typically no more than 1,600 m (5,200 ft) in height.[131] The coastal uplands and a belt of Brigalow grasslands lie between the coast and the mountains, while inland of the dividing range are large areas of grassland and shrubland.[131][132] These include the western plains of New South Wales, and the Mitchell Grass Downs and Mulga Lands of inland Queensland.[133][134][135][136] The northernmost point of the mainland is the tropical Cape York Peninsula.[123]

Uluru in the semi-arid region of Central Australia

The landscapes of the Top End and the Gulf Country—with their tropical climate—include forest, woodland, wetland, grassland, rainforest and desert.[137][138][139] At the north-west corner of the continent are the sandstone cliffs and gorges of The Kimberley, and below that the Pilbara. The Victoria Plains tropical savanna lies south of the Kimberly and Arnhem Land savannas, forming a transition between the coastal savannas and the interior deserts.[140][141][142] At the heart of the country are the uplands of central Australia. Prominent features of the centre and south include Uluru (also known as Ayers Rock), the famous sandstone monolith, and the inland Simpson, Tirari and Sturt Stony, Gibson, Great Sandy, Tanami, and Great Victoria deserts, with the famous Nullarbor Plain on the southern coast.[143][144][145][146] The Western Australian mulga shrublands lie between the interior deserts and Mediterranean-climate Southwest Australia.[145][147]


Basic geological regions of Australia, by age.

Lying on the Indo-Australian Plate, the mainland of Australia is the lowest and most primordial landmass on Earth with a relatively stable geological history.[148][149] The landmass includes virtually all known rock types and from all geological time periods spanning over 3.8 billion years of the Earth's history. The Pilbara Craton is one of only two pristine Archaean 3.6–2.7 Ga (billion years ago) crusts identified on the Earth.[150]

Having been part of all major supercontinents, the Australian continent began to form after the breakup of Gondwana in the Permian, with the separation of the continental landmass from the African continent and Indian subcontinent. It separated from Antarctica over a prolonged period beginning in the Permian and continuing through to the Cretaceous.[151] When the last glacial period ended in about 10,000 BC, rising sea levels formed Bass Strait, separating Tasmania from the mainland. Then between about 8,000 and 6,500 BC, the lowlands in the north were flooded by the sea, separating New Guinea, the Aru Islands, and the mainland of Australia.[152] The Australian continent is moving toward Eurasia at the rate of 6 to 7 centimetres a year.[153]

The Australian mainland's continental crust, excluding the thinned margins, has an average thickness of 38 km, with a range in thickness from 24 km to 59 km.[154] Australia's geology can be divided into several main sections, showcasing that the continent grew from west to east: the Archaean cratonic shields found mostly in the west, Proterozoic fold belts in the centre and Phanerozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic and igneous rocks in the east.[155]

The Australian mainland and Tasmania are situated in the middle of the tectonic plate and have no active volcanoes,[156] but due to passing over the East Australia hotspot, recent volcanism has occurred during the Holocene, in the Newer Volcanics Province of western Victoria and southeastern South Australia. Volcanism also occurs in the island of New Guinea (considered geologically as part of the Australian continent), and in the Australian external territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands.[157] Seismic activity in the Australian mainland and Tasmania is also low, with the greatest number of fatalities having occurred in the 1989 Newcastle earthquake.[158]


The climate of Australia is significantly influenced by ocean currents, including the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low-pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia.[160][161] These factors cause rainfall to vary markedly from year to year. Much of the northern part of the country has a tropical, predominantly summer-rainfall (monsoon).[126] The south-west corner of the country has a Mediterranean climate.[162] The south-east ranges from oceanic (Tasmania and coastal Victoria) to humid subtropical (upper half of New South Wales), with the highlands featuring alpine and subpolar oceanic climates. The interior is arid to semi-arid.[126]

Driven by climate change, average temperatures have risen more than 1°C since 1960. Associated changes in rainfall patterns and climate extremes exacerbate existing issues such as drought and bushfires. 2019 was Australia's warmest recorded year,[163] and the 2019–2020 bushfire season was the country's worst on record.[164] Australia's greenhouse gas emissions per capita are among the highest in the world.[165]

Water restrictions are frequently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and localised drought.[166][167] Throughout much of the continent, major flooding regularly follows extended periods of drought, flushing out inland river systems, overflowing dams and inundating large inland flood plains, as occurred throughout Eastern Australia in the early 2010s after the 2000s Australian drought.[168]


A koala holding onto a eucalyptus tree with its head turned so both eyes are visible
The koala and the eucalyptus form an iconic Australian pair.

Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, the continent includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests. Fungi typify that diversity—an estimated 250,000 species—of which only 5% have been described—occur in Australia.[169] Because of the continent's great age, extremely variable weather patterns, and long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic.[170] Australia has at least 755 species of reptile, more than any other country in the world.[171] Besides Antarctica, Australia is the only continent that developed without feline species. Feral cats may have been introduced in the 17th century by Dutch shipwrecks, and later in the 18th century by European settlers. They are now considered a major factor in the decline and extinction of many vulnerable and endangered native species.[172] Australia is also one of 17 megadiverse countries.[173]

Australian forests are mostly made up of evergreen species, particularly eucalyptus trees in the less arid regions; wattles replace them as the dominant species in drier regions and deserts.[174] Among well-known Australian animals are the monotremes (the platypus and echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, and wombat, and birds such as the emu and the kookaburra.[174] Australia is home to many dangerous animals including some of the most venomous snakes in the world.[175] The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE.[176] Many animal and plant species became extinct soon after first human settlement,[177] including the Australian megafauna; others have disappeared since European settlement, among them the thylacine.[178][179]

Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced animal, chromistan, fungal and plant species.[180] All these factors have led to Australia's having the highest mammal extinction rate of any country in the world.[181] The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is the legal framework for the protection of threatened species.[182] Numerous protected areas have been created under the National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity to protect and preserve unique ecosystems;[183][184] 65 wetlands are listed under the Ramsar Convention,[185] and 16 natural World Heritage Sites have been established.[186] Australia was ranked 21st out of 178 countries in the world on the 2018 Environmental Performance Index.[187] There are more than 1,800 animals and plants on Australia's threatened species list, including more than 500 animals.[188]

Government and politics

Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia
David Hurley, Governor-General of Australia
Scott Morrison, Prime Minister of Australia

Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.[189] The country has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system under its constitution, which is one of the world's oldest, since Federation in 1901. It is also one of the world's oldest federations, in which power is divided between the federal and state and territorial governments. The Australian system of government combines elements derived from the political systems of the United Kingdom (a fused executive, constitutional monarchy and strong party discipline) and the United States (federalism, a written constitution and strong bicameralism with an elected upper house), along with distinctive indigenous features.[190][191]

The federal government is separated into three branches:[192]

  • Legislature: the bicameral Parliament, comprising the monarch (represented by the governor-general), the Senate, and the House of Representatives;
  • Executive: the Federal Executive Council, which in practice gives legal effect to the decisions of the cabinet, comprising the prime minister and other ministers of state appointed by the governor-general on the advice of Parliament;[193]
  • Judiciary: the High Court of Australia and other federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the governor-general on advice of Parliament

Elizabeth II reigns as Queen of Australia and is represented in Australia by the governor-general at the federal level and by the governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers.[194][195] Thus, in practice the governor-general acts as a legal figurehead for the actions of the prime minister and the Federal Executive Council. The governor-general does have extraordinary reserve powers which may be exercised outside the prime minister's request in rare and limited circumstances, the most notable exercise of which was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975.[196]

A large white and cream coloured building with grass on its roof. The building is topped with a large flagpole.
Parliament House, Canberra

In the Senate (the upper house), there are 76 senators: twelve each from the states and two each from the mainland territories (the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory).[197] The House of Representatives (the lower house) has 151 members elected from single-member electoral divisions, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", allocated to states on the basis of population,[198] with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats.[199] Elections for both chambers are normally held every three years simultaneously; senators have overlapping six-year terms except for those from the territories, whose terms are not fixed but are tied to the electoral cycle for the lower house; thus only 40 of the 76 places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle is interrupted by a double dissolution.[197]

Australia's electoral system uses preferential voting for all lower house elections with the exception of Tasmania and the ACT which, along with the Senate and most state upper houses, combine it with proportional representation in a system known as the single transferable vote. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over in every jurisdiction,[200] as is enrolment.[201] The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms the government and its leader becomes Prime Minister. In cases where no party has majority support, the Governor-General has the constitutional power to appoint the Prime Minister and, if necessary, dismiss one that has lost the confidence of Parliament.[202] Due to the relatively unique position of Australia operating as a Westminster Parliamentary democracy with an elected upper house, the system has sometimes been referred to as having a "Washminster mutation",[203] or as a Semi-parliamentary system.[204]

There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party.[205][206] Within Australian political culture, the Coalition is considered centre-right and the Labor Party is considered centre-left.[207] Independent members and several minor parties have achieved representation in Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses. The Australian Greens are often considered the "third force" in politics, being the third largest party by both vote and membership.[208][209]

The most recent federal election was held on 18 May 2019 and resulted in the Coalition, led by Prime Minister Scott Morrison, retaining government.[210]

States and territories

A map of Australia's states and territories

Australia has six states — New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (QLD), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS), Victoria (VIC) and Western Australia (WA) — and two major mainland territories—the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT). In most respects, these two territories function as states, except that the Commonwealth Parliament has the power to modify or repeal any legislation passed by the territory parliaments.[211]

Under the constitution, the states essentially have plenary legislative power to legislate on any subject, whereas the Commonwealth (federal) Parliament may legislate only within the subject areas enumerated under section 51. For example, state parliaments have the power to legislate with respect to education, criminal law and state police, health, transport, and local government, but the Commonwealth Parliament does not have any specific power to legislate in these areas.[212] However, Commonwealth laws prevail over state laws to the extent of the inconsistency.[213]

Each state and major mainland territory has its own parliamentunicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT and Queensland, and bicameral in the other states. The states are sovereign entities, although subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution. The lower houses are known as the Legislative Assembly (the House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania); the upper houses are known as the Legislative Council. The head of the government in each state is the Premier and in each territory the Chief Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a governor; and in the Northern Territory, the administrator.[214] In the Commonwealth, the Queen's representative is the governor-general.[215]

The Commonwealth Parliament also directly administers the external territories of Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, and the claimed region of Australian Antarctic Territory, as well as the internal Jervis Bay Territory, a naval base and sea port for the national capital in land that was formerly part of New South Wales.[193] The external territory of Norfolk Island previously exercised considerable autonomy under the Norfolk Island Act 1979 through its own legislative assembly and an Administrator to represent the Queen.[216] In 2015, the Commonwealth Parliament abolished self-government, integrating Norfolk Island into the Australian tax and welfare systems and replacing its legislative assembly with a council.[217] Macquarie Island is part of Tasmania,[218] and Lord Howe Island of New South Wales.[219]

Foreign relations

Australia's Minister for Foreign Affairs, Marise Payne.

Over recent decades, Australia's foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States through the ANZUS pact, and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, particularly through Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Pacific Islands Forum and the Pacific Community, of which Australia is a founding member. In 2005, Australia secured an inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit following its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, and in 2011 attended the Sixth East Asia Summit in Indonesia. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, in which the Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for co-operation.[220] Australia has pursued the cause of international trade liberalisation.[221] It led the formation of the Cairns Group and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.[222][223]

Australia is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the World Trade Organization (WTO),[224][225] and has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement[226] and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand,[227] with another free trade agreement being negotiated with China — the Australia–China Free Trade Agreement — and Japan,[228] South Korea in 2011,[229][230] Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement, and as of November 2015 has put the Trans-Pacific Partnership before parliament for ratification.[231]

Australia maintains a deeply integrated relationship with neighbouring New Zealand, with free mobility of citizens between the two countries under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement and free trade under the Australia–New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement.[232] New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom are the most favourably viewed countries in the world by Australian people.[233][234]

Along with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia and Singapore, Australia is party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements, a regional defence agreement. A founding member country of the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to multilateralism[235] and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance. The 2005–2006 budget provides AU$2.5 billion for development assistance.[236] Australia ranks fifteenth overall in the Center for Global Development's 2012 Commitment to Development Index.[237]


Colour photograph of people wearing military uniforms standing in lines during a formal parade
Australian soldiers deployed to Iraq in 2017.

Australia's armed forces—the Australian Defence Force (ADF) — comprise the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), in total numbering 81,214 personnel (including 57,982 regulars and 23,232 reservists) as of November 2015. The titular role of Commander-in-Chief is vested in the Governor-General, who appoints a Chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services on the advice of the government.[238] In a diarchy, the CDF serves as co-chairman of the Defence Committee, conjointly with the Secretary of Defence, in the command and control of the Australian Defence Organisation.[239]

In the 2016–2017 budget, defence spending comprised 2% of GDP, representing the world's 12th largest defence budget.[240] Australia has been involved in United Nations and regional peacekeeping, disaster relief and armed conflict, including the 2003 invasion of Iraq; Australia currently has deployed about 2,241 personnel in varying capacities to 12 international operations in areas including Iraq and Afghanistan.[241]


A wealthy country, Australia has a market economy, a high GDP per capita, and a relatively low rate of poverty. In terms of average wealth, Australia ranked second in the world after Switzerland from 2013 until 2018.[242] In 2018, Australia overtook Switzerland and became the country with the highest average wealth.[242] Australia's relative poverty rate is 13.6%.[243] It was identified by the Credit Suisse Research Institute as the nation with the highest median wealth in the world and the second-highest average wealth per adult in 2013.[244]

The Australian dollar is the currency for the nation, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu. With the 2006 merger of the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange became the ninth largest in the world.[245]

Australian energy resources and major export ports map

Ranked fifth in the Index of Economic Freedom (2017),[246] Australia is the world's 13th largest economy and has the tenth highest per capita GDP (nominal) at US$55,692.[247] The country was ranked third in the United Nations 2017 Human Development Index.[248] Melbourne reached top spot for the fourth year in a row on The Economist's 2014 list of the world's most liveable cities,[249] followed by Adelaide, Sydney, and Perth in the fifth, seventh, and ninth places respectively. Total government debt in Australia is about A$190 billion[250]—20% of GDP in 2010.[251] Australia has among the highest house prices and some of the highest household debt levels in the world.[252]

An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactured goods has underpinned a significant increase in Australia's terms of trade since the start of the 21st century, due to rising commodity prices. Australia has a balance of payments that is more than 7% of GDP negative, and has had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50 years.[253] Australia has grown at an average annual rate of 3.6% for over 15 years, in comparison to the OECD annual average of 2.5%.[253]

Australia was the only advanced economy not to experience a recession due to the global financial downturn in 2008–2009.[254] However, the economies of six of Australia's major trading partners were in recession, which in turn affected Australia, significantly hampering its economic growth.[255][256] From 2012 to early 2013, Australia's national economy grew, but some non-mining states and Australia's non-mining economy experienced a recession.[257][258][259]

Buildings and equipment of a large mining operation
The Boddington Gold Mine in Western Australia is the nation's largest open cut mine.[260]

The Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar in 1983 and partially deregulated the financial system.[261] The Howard Government followed with a partial deregulation of the labour market and the further privatisation of state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunications industry.[262] The indirect tax system was substantially changed in July 2000 with the introduction of a 10% Goods and Services Tax (GST).[263] In Australia's tax system, personal and company income tax are the main sources of government revenue.[264]

As of June 2021, there were 13,154,200 people employed (either full-time or part-time), with an unemployment rate of 4.9%.[265] Data released in mid-November 2013 showed that the number of welfare recipients had grown by 55%. In 2007 228,621 Newstart unemployment allowance recipients were registered, a total that increased to 646,414 in March 2013.[266] According to the Graduate Careers Survey, full-time employment for newly qualified professionals from various occupations has declined since 2011 but it increases for graduates three years after graduation.[267][268]

As of 2020 interest rates in Australia were set at a record low of 0.1%, targeting an inflation rate of 2 to 3%.[269] The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, accounts for about 70% of GDP.[270] Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, particularly wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and gold, and energy in the forms of liquified natural gas and coal. Although agriculture and natural resources account for only 3% and 5% of GDP respectively, they contribute substantially to export performance. Australia's largest export markets are Japan, China, the United States, South Korea, and New Zealand.[271] Australia is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine, and the wine industry contributes A$5.5 billion per year to the nation's economy.[272]

Access to biocapacity in Australia is much higher than world average. In 2016, Australia had 12.3 global hectares[273] of biocapacity per person within its territory, much more than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person.[274] In 2016 Australia used 6.6 global hectares of biocapacity per person – their ecological footprint of consumption. This means they use half as much biocapacity as Australia contains. As a result, Australia is running a biocapacity reserve.[273]

In 2020 the Australian Council of Social Service released a report stating that relative poverty was growing in Australia, with an estimated 3.2 million people, or 13.6% of the population, living below an internationally accepted relative poverty threshold of 50% of a country's median income. It also estimated that there were 774,000 (17.7%) children under the age of 15 in relative poverty.[275][276]


A beach populated by people; a city can be seen in the horizon
Australia has one of the world's most highly urbanised populations with the majority living in metropolitan cities on the coast, such as Gold Coast, Queensland.

Australia has an average population density of 3.4 persons per square kilometre of total land area, which makes it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. The population is heavily concentrated on the east coast, and in particular in the south-eastern region between South East Queensland to the north-east and Adelaide to the south-west.[277]

Australia is highly urbanised, with 67% of the population living in the Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (metropolitan areas of the state and mainland territorial capital cities) in 2018.[278] Metropolitan areas with more than one million inhabitants are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.[279]

In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2018 the average age of the Australian population was 38.8 years.[280] In 2015, 2.15% of the Australian population lived overseas, one of the lowest proportions worldwide.[281]

Ancestry and immigration

Country of birth (2020)[283]
Birthplace[N 8] Population
England 980,360
India 721,050
Mainland China 650,640
New Zealand 564,840
Philippines 310,050
Vietnam 270,340
South Africa 200,240
Italy 177,840
Malaysia 177,460
Sri Lanka 146,950
Scotland 132,590
Nepal 131,830
South Korea 111,530
Germany 111,030
United States 110,160
Hong Kong 104,760
Greece 103,710
Total Australian-born 18,043,310
Total foreign-born 7,653,990

Between 1788 and the Second World War, the vast majority of settlers and immigrants came from the British Isles (principally England, Ireland and Scotland), although there was significant immigration from China and Germany during the 19th century. In the decades immediately following the Second World War, Australia received a large wave of immigration from across Europe, with many more immigrants arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe than in previous decades. Since the end of the White Australia policy in 1973, Australia has pursued an official policy of multiculturalism,[284] and there has been a large and continuing wave of immigration from across the world, with Asia being the largest source of immigrants in the 21st century.[285]

Today, Australia has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 30% of the population, the highest proportion among major Western nations.[28][286] 160,323 permanent immigrants were admitted to Australia in 2018–2019 (excluding refugees),[285] whilst there was a net population gain of 239,600 people from all permanent and temporary immigration in that year.[287] The majority of immigrants are skilled,[285] but the immigration program includes categories for family members and refugees.[287] In 2020, the largest foreign-born populations were those born in England (3.8%), India (2.8%), Mainland China (2.5%), New Zealand (2.2%), the Philippines (1.2%) and Vietnam (1.1%).[288]

In the 2016 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:[N 9][289][290]

  • English (36.1%)
  • Australian (33.5%)[N 10]
  • Irish (11.0%)
  • Scottish (9.3%)
  • Chinese (5.6%)
  • Italian (4.6%)
  • German (4.5%)
  • Indian (2.8%)
  • Indigenous (2.8%)[N 11]
  • Greek (1.8%)
  • Dutch (1.6%)
  • Filipino (1.4%)
  • Vietnamese (1.4%)
  • Lebanese (1%)

At the 2016 census, 649,171 people (2.8% of the total population) identified as being IndigenousAboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.[N 12][292] Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are, respectively, 11 and 17 years lower than those of non-indigenous Australians.[271][293][294] Some remote Indigenous communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions.[295]


Although Australia has no official language, English is the de facto national language.[2] Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon,[296] and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling.[297] General Australian serves as the standard dialect.[298]

According to the 2016 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for 72.7% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Mandarin (2.5%), Arabic (1.4%), Cantonese (1.2%), Vietnamese (1.2%) and Italian (1.2%).[289] Over 250 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact,[299] of which fewer than twenty are still in daily use by all age groups.[300][301] About 110 others are spoken exclusively by older people.[301] At the time of the 2006 census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12% of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous language at home.[302] Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 10,112 deaf people who reported that they spoke Auslan language at home in the 2016 census.[303]


Religion in Australia (2016)[304]
Religion Percent
Christianity (total)
—Other Christian
No religion
Undefined or not stated

Australia has no state religion; Section 116 of the Australian Constitution prohibits the federal government from making any law to establish any religion, impose any religious observance, or prohibit the free exercise of any religion.[305] In the 2016 census, 52.1% of Australians were counted as Christian, including 22.6% as Catholic and 13.3% as Anglican; 30.1% of the population reported having "no religion"; 8.2% identify with non-Christian religions, the largest of these being Islam (2.6%), followed by Buddhism (2.4%), Hinduism (1.9%), Sikhism (0.5%) and Judaism (0.4%). The remaining 9.7% of the population did not provide an adequate answer. Those who reported having no religion increased conspicuously from 19% in 2006 to 22% in 2011 to 30.1% in 2016.[304]

Before European settlement, the animist beliefs of Australia's indigenous people had been practised for many thousands of years. Mainland Aboriginal Australians' spirituality is known as the Dreaming and it places a heavy emphasis on belonging to the land. The collection of stories that it contains shaped Aboriginal law and customs. Aboriginal art, story and dance continue to draw on these spiritual traditions. The spirituality and customs of Torres Strait Islanders, who inhabit the islands between Australia and New Guinea, reflected their Melanesian origins and dependence on the sea. The 1996 Australian census counted more than 7000 respondents as followers of a traditional Aboriginal religion.[306]

Since the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships in 1788, Christianity has become the major religion practised in Australia. Christian churches have played an integral role in the development of education, health and welfare services in Australia. For much of Australian history, the Church of England (now known as the Anglican Church of Australia) was the largest religious denomination, with a large Roman Catholic minority. However, multicultural immigration has contributed to a steep decline in its relative position since the Second World War. Similarly, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Judaism have all grown in Australia over the past half-century.[307]

Australia has one of the lowest levels of religious adherence in the world.[308] In 2018, 13% of women and 10% of men reported attending church at least weekly.[309]


Australia's life expectancy is the fourth highest in the world for males and the third highest for females.[310] Life expectancy in Australia in 2014–2016 was 80.4 years for males and 84.6 years for females.[311] Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world,[312] while cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disease, responsible for 7.8% of the total mortality and disease. Ranked second in preventable causes is hypertension at 7.6%, with obesity third at 7.5%.[313][314] Australia ranks 35th in the world[315] and near the top of developed nations for its proportion of obese adults[316] and nearly two thirds (63%) of its adult population is either overweight or obese.[317]

Total expenditure on health (including private sector spending) is around 9.8% of GDP.[318] Australia introduced universal health care in 1975.[319] Known as Medicare, it is now nominally funded by an income tax surcharge known as the Medicare levy, currently at 2%.[320] The states manage hospitals and attached outpatient services, while the Commonwealth funds the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (subsidising the costs of medicines) and general practice.[319]


Five Australian universities rank in the top 50 of the QS World University Rankings, including the Australian National University (19th).[321]

School attendance, or registration for home schooling,[322] is compulsory throughout Australia. Education is the responsibility of the individual states and territories[323] so the rules vary between states, but in general children are required to attend school from the age of about 5 until about 16.[324][325] In some states (e.g., Western Australia, the Northern Territory and New South Wales), children aged 16–17 are required to either attend school or participate in vocational training, such as an apprenticeship.[326][327][328][329]

Australia has an adult literacy rate that was estimated to be 99% in 2003.[330] However, a 2011–2012 report for the Australian Bureau of Statistics reported that Tasmania has a literacy and numeracy rate of only 50%.[331]

Australia has 37 government-funded universities and three private universities, as well as a number of other specialist institutions that provide approved courses at the higher education level.[332] The OECD places Australia among the most expensive nations to attend university.[333] There is a state-based system of vocational training, known as TAFE, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople.[334] About 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications,[271] and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries. 30.9% of Australia's population has attained a higher education qualification, which is among the highest percentages in the world.[335][336][337]

Australia has the highest ratio of international students per head of population in the world by a large margin, with 812,000 international students enrolled in the nation's universities and vocational institutions in 2019.[338][339] Accordingly, in 2019, international students represented on average 26.7% of the student bodies of Australian universities. International education therefore represents one of the country's largest exports and has a pronounced influence on the country's demographics, with a significant proportion of international students remaining in Australia after graduation on various skill and employment visas.[340]



In 2003, Australia's energy sources were coal (58.4%), hydropower (19.1%), natural gas (13.5%), liquid/gas fossil fuel-switching plants (5.4%), oil (2.9%), and other renewable resources like wind power, solar energy, and bioenergy (0.7%).[341] During the 21st century, Australia has been trending to generate more energy using renewable resources and less energy using fossil fuels. In 2020, Australia used coal for 62% of all energy (3.6% increase compared to 2013), wind power for 9.9% (9.5% increase), natural gas for 9.9% (3.6% decrease), solar power for 9.9% (9.8% increase), hydropower for 6.4% (12.7% decrease), bioenergy for 1.4% (1.2% increase), and other sources like oil and waste coal mine gas for 0.5%.[342][343]

In August 2009, Australia's government set a goal to achieve 20% of all energy in the country from renewable sources by 2020.[344] They achieved this goal, as renewable resources accounted for 27.7% of Australia's energy in 2020.[342]


Ornate white building with an elevated dome in the middle, fronted by a golden fountain and orange flowers
The Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne was the first building in Australia to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004.[345]

Since 1788, the primary influence behind Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture, with some Indigenous influences.[346][347] The divergence and evolution that has occurred in the ensuing centuries has resulted in a distinctive Australian culture.[348][349] The culture of the United States has served as a significant influence, particularly through television and cinema. Other cultural influences come from neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking nations.[350]


Australia has over 100,000 Aboriginal rock art sites,[351] and traditional designs, patterns and stories infuse contemporary Indigenous Australian art, "the last great art movement of the 20th century" according to critic Robert Hughes;[352] its exponents include Emily Kame Kngwarreye.[353] Early colonial artists showed a fascination with the unfamiliar land.[354] The impressionistic works of Arthur Streeton, Tom Roberts and other members of the 19th-century Heidelberg School—the first "distinctively Australian" movement in Western art—gave expression to nationalist sentiments in the lead-up to Federation.[354] While the school remained influential into the 1900s, modernists such as Margaret Preston, and, later, Sidney Nolan and Arthur Boyd, explored new artistic trends.[354] The landscape remained a central subject matter for Fred Williams, Brett Whiteley and other post-war artists whose works, eclectic in style yet uniquely Australian, moved between the figurative and the abstract.[354][355] The national and state galleries maintain collections of local and international art.[356] Australia has one of the world's highest attendances of art galleries and museums per head of population.[357]

Sidney Nolan's Snake mural (1970), held at the Museum of Old and New Art in Hobart, Tasmania, is inspired by the Aboriginal creation myth of the Rainbow Serpent, as well as desert flowers in bloom after a drought.[358]

Australian literature grew slowly in the decades following European settlement though Indigenous oral traditions, many of which have since been recorded in writing, are much older.[359] In the 1870s, Adam Lindsay Gordon posthumously became the first Australian poet to attain a wide readership. Following in his footsteps, Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson captured the experience of the bush using a distinctive Australian vocabulary.[360] Their works are still popular; Paterson's bush poem "Waltzing Matilda" (1895) is regarded as Australia's unofficial national anthem.[361] Miles Franklin is the namesake of Australia's most prestigious literary prize, awarded annually to the best novel about Australian life.[362] Its first recipient, Patrick White, went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1973.[363] Australian Booker Prize winners include Peter Carey, Thomas Keneally and Richard Flanagan.[364] Authors David Malouf, Germaine Greer, Helen Garner, playwright David Williamson and poet Les Murray are also renowned.[365][366]

Many of Australia's performing arts companies receive funding through the federal government's Australia Council.[367] There is a symphony orchestra in each state,[368] and a national opera company, Opera Australia,[369] well known for its famous soprano Joan Sutherland.[370] At the beginning of the 20th century, Nellie Melba was one of the world's leading opera singers.[371] Ballet and dance are represented by The Australian Ballet and various state companies. Each state has a publicly funded theatre company.[372]


Actor playing the bushranger Ned Kelly in The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first feature-length narrative film

The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first feature-length narrative film, spurred a boom in Australian cinema during the silent film era.[373] After World War I, Hollywood monopolised the industry,[374] and by the 1960s Australian film production had effectively ceased.[375] With the benefit of government support, the Australian New Wave of the 1970s brought provocative and successful films, many exploring themes of national identity, such as Wake in Fright and Gallipoli,[376] while Crocodile Dundee and the Ozploitation movement's Mad Max series became international blockbusters.[377] In a film market flooded with foreign content, Australian films delivered a 7.7% share of the local box office in 2015.[378] The AACTAs are Australia's premier film and television awards, and notable Academy Award winners from Australia include Geoffrey Rush, Nicole Kidman, Cate Blanchett and Heath Ledger.[379]

Australia has two public broadcasters (the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and the multicultural Special Broadcasting Service), three commercial television networks, several pay-TV services,[380] and numerous public, non-profit television and radio stations. Each major city has at least one daily newspaper,[380] and there are two national daily newspapers, The Australian and The Australian Financial Review.[380] In 2020, Reporters Without Borders placed Australia 25th on a list of 180 countries ranked by press freedom, behind New Zealand (8th) but ahead of the United Kingdom (33rd) and United States (44th).[381] This relatively low ranking is primarily because of the limited diversity of commercial media ownership in Australia;[382] most print media are under the control of News Corporation and Nine Entertainment Co.[383]


The meringue-based pavlova is generally eaten at Christmas time.

Most Indigenous Australian groups subsisted on a simple hunter-gatherer diet of native fauna and flora, otherwise called bush tucker.[384] The first settlers introduced British food to the continent, much of which is now considered typical Australian food, such as the Sunday roast.[385][386] Multicultural immigration transformed Australian cuisine; post-World War II European migrants, particularly from the Mediterranean, helped to build a thriving Australian coffee culture, and the influence of Asian cultures has led to Australian variants of their staple foods, such as the Chinese-inspired dim sim and Chiko Roll.[387] Vegemite, pavlova, lamingtons and meat pies are regarded as iconic Australian foods.[388]

Australian wine is produced mainly in the southern, cooler parts of the country.[389] Australia is also known for its cafe and coffee culture in urban centres, which has influenced coffee culture abroad, including New York City.[390] Australia was responsible for the flat white coffee–purported to have originated in a Sydney cafe in the mid-1980s.[391]

Sport and recreation

The Melbourne Cricket Ground is strongly associated with the history and development of cricket and Australian rules football, Australia's two most popular spectator sports.[392]

Cricket and football are the predominate sports in Australia during the summer and winter months, respectively. Australia is unique in that it has professional leagues for four football codes. Originating in Melbourne in the 1850s, Australian rules football is the most popular code in all states except New South Wales and Queensland, where rugby league holds sway, followed by rugby union; the imaginary border separating areas where Australian rules football dominates from those were the two rugby codes prevail is known as the Barassi Line.[393] Soccer, while ranked fourth in popularity and resources, has the highest overall participation rates.[394] Cricket is popular across all borders and has been regarded by many Australians as the national sport. The Australian national cricket team competed against England in the first Test match (1877) and the first One Day International (1971), and against New Zealand in the first Twenty20 International (2004), winning all three games. It has also participated in every edition of the Cricket World Cup, winning the tournament a record five times.[395]

Australia is also notable for water-based sports, such as swimming and surfing.[396] The surf lifesaving movement originated in Australia, and the volunteer lifesaver is one of the country's icons.[397] Nationally, other popular sports include horse racing, basketball, and motor racing. The annual Melbourne Cup horse race and the Sydney to Hobart yacht race attract intense interest.[398] In 2016, the Australian Sports Commission revealed that swimming, cycling and soccer are the three most popular participation sports.[399][400]

Australia is one of five nations to have participated in every Summer Olympics of the modern era,[401] and has hosted the Games twice: 1956 in Melbourne and 2000 in Sydney.[402] It is also set to host the 2032 Games in Brisbane.[403] Australia has also participated in every Commonwealth Games,[404] hosting the event in 1938, 1962, 1982, 2006 and 2018.[405] Australia made its inaugural appearance at the Pacific Games in 2015. As well as being a regular FIFA World Cup participant, Australia has won the OFC Nations Cup four times and the AFC Asian Cup once—the only country to have won championships in two different FIFA confederations.[406] In June 2020, Australia won its bid to co-host the 2023 FIFA Women's World Cup with New Zealand.[407][408] The country regularly competes among the world elite basketball teams as it is among the global top three teams in terms of qualifications to the Basketball Tournament at the Summer Olympics. Other major international events held in Australia include the Australian Open tennis grand slam tournament, international cricket matches, and the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. The highest-rating television programs include sports telecasts such as the Summer Olympics, FIFA World Cup, The Ashes, Rugby League State of Origin, and the grand finals of the National Rugby League and Australian Football League.[409] Skiing in Australia began in the 1860s and snow sports take place in the Australian Alps and parts of Tasmania.[410]

See also


  1. ^ Australia's royal anthem is "God Save the Queen", played in the presence of a member of the Royal family when they are in Australia. In other contexts, the national anthem of Australia, "Advance Australia Fair", is played.[1]
  2. ^ English does not have de jure status.[2]
  3. ^ Religion was an optional question on the Census, so percentages for individual religions do not add up to 100%[3]
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b There are minor variations from three basic time zones; see Time in Australia.
  5. ^ The earliest recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in "A note of Australia del Espíritu Santo, written by Sir Richard Hakluyt", published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, a corruption of the original Spanish name "Austrialia del Espíritu Santo" (Southern Land of the Holy Spirit)[34][35][36] for an island in Vanuatu.[37] The Dutch adjectival form australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia (Jakarta) in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south.[38]
  6. ^ For instance, the 1814 work A Voyage to Terra Australis
  7. ^ Australia describes the body of water south of its mainland as the Southern Ocean, rather than the Indian Ocean as defined by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). In 2000, a vote of IHO member nations defined the term "Southern Ocean" as applying only to the waters between Antarctica and 60° south latitude.[116]
  8. ^ In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, England, Scotland, Mainland China and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately
  9. ^ As a percentage of 21,769,209 persons who nominated their ancestry at the 2016 census. The Australian Census collects information on ancestry, but not on race or ethnicity.
  10. ^ The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the Anglo-Celtic group.[291]
  11. ^ Of any ancestry. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.
  12. ^ Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.


  1. ^ "Australian National Anthem". Archived from the original on 1 July 2007.
    "16. Other matters – 16.3 Australian National Anthem". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.
    "National Symbols" (PDF). Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia (29th ed.). 2005 [2002]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  2. ^ Jump up to: a b "Pluralist Nations: Pluralist Language Policies?". 1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference Proceedings, Sydney. Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2009. "English has no de jure status but it is so entrenched as the common language that it is de facto the official language as well as the national language."
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b "Religion in Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 June 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  4. ^ See entry in the Macquarie Dictionary.
  5. ^ Collins English Dictionary. Bishopbriggs, Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2009. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-00-786171-2.
  6. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b "Population clock". Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 23 July 2020. The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.
  8. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Australia". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 27 June 2017. Edit this at Wikidata
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: October 2020". International Monetary Fund. April 2021.
  10. ^ "Income Distribution Database". (Database). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 16 December 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  12. ^ Style manual for authors, editors and printers (6th ed.). John Wiley & Sons Australia. 2002. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-7016-3647-0.
  13. ^ "Constitution of Australia". ComLaw. 9 July 1900. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 3. It shall be lawful for the Queen, with the advice of the Privy Council, to declare by proclamation that, on and after a day therein appointed, not being later than one year after the passing of this Act, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania, and also, if Her Majesty is satisfied that the people of Western Australia have agreed thereto, of Western Australia, shall be united in a Federal Commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia.
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  • Davison, Graeme; Hirst, John; Macintyre, Stuart (1998). The Oxford Companion to Australian History. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-553597-6.
  • Jupp, James (2001). The Australian people: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people, and their origins. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80789-0.
  • Jupp, James; Director Centre for Immigration and Multicultural Studies James Jupp (2001). The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80789-0.
  • Smith, Bernard; Smith, Terry (1991). Australian painting 1788–1990. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-554901-0.
  • Teo, Hsu-Ming; White, Richard (2003). Cultural history in Australia. University of New South Wales Press. ISBN 978-0-86840-589-6.

Further reading

  • Denoon, Donald, et al. (2000). A History of Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-17962-3.
  • Goad, Philip and Julie Willis (eds.) (2011). The Encyclopedia of Australian Architecture. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88857-8.
  • Hughes, Robert (1986). The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50668-5.
  • Powell, J.M. (1988). An Historical Geography of Modern Australia: The Restive Fringe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25619-4
  • Robinson, G.M., Loughran, R.J., and Tranter, P.J. (2000). Australia and New Zealand: Economy, Society and Environment. London: Arnold; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-340-72033-6 paperback, ISBN 0-340-72032-8 hardback.
  • Brett, Judith (2019). From Secret Ballot to Democracy Sausage: How Australia Got Compulsory Voting. Text Publishing Co. ISBN 978-1-925603-84-2.

External links

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Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133

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